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The Heart Sūtra (Sanskrit प्रज्ञापारमिताहृदय Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya or Chinese 心經 Xīnjīng) is a popular sutra in Mahāyāna Buddhism. Its Sanskrit title, Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya, can be translated as "The Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom". The Heart Sūtra is often cited as the best-known and most popular Buddhist scripture  (along with the Diamond Sutra). It is especially popular in East Asia and is highly respected by Tibetan Buddhism. It was also highly respected during the Pala Empire (ca. 750-1163 CE) located today in Bangladesh and Northern India. The standard version of the Heart Sutra in East Asia is Taisho 251 translated by Tripitaka Master Xuanzang. The Tibetan translation is Peking (Beijing) Kangyur No. 21; which was later translated into Mongolian and the Manchu language. The text has been translated into English dozens of times from Chinese, Sanskrit and Tibetan as well as other source languages.
The Heart Sūtra (Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya), belongs to the Perfection of Wisdom (Prajñāpāramitā) section of the Mahāyāna Buddhist Canon (often called the mother of all Buddhas), is along with the Diamond Sutra, the most prominent representative of the genre; the versions preserved in the Chinese language Tripitakas, Tibetan and Mongolian language Kangyurs as well as the Sanskrit language texts of Newar Buddhism are regarded as canonical by all the surviving Mahayana Buddhist traditions. The text exists in two versions, a long and a short version. The earliest extant version is the short version. The Chinese Buddhist canon includes both long and short versions, and both versions also exist in Sanskrit. In the current Tibetan canon only the long version is preserved; although Tibetan translations of the short version predating the current canonical version have been found at Dunhuang.
The Chinese version of the short text translated by Xuanzang (T251) has 260 Chinese characters; the equivalent Sanskrit version has 14 lines. This makes it one of the shortest texts in the Perfection of Wisdom genre, which contains scriptures in lengths up to 100,000 lines; the shortest text in the Perfection of Wisdom genre is the Perfection of Wisdom in One Letter (Ekākṣarīprajñāpāramitā). The Heart Sūtra is often said to contain the entire meaning of the longer Sutras.
This sutra is classified by Edward Conze as belonging to the third of four periods in the development of the Prajñāpāramitā canon, although because it contains a mantra (sometimes called a dhāraṇī), it does overlap with the final, tantric phase of development according to this scheme, and is included in the tantra section of at least some editions of the Kangyur. Conze estimates the sutra's date of origin to be 350 CE; some others consider it to be two centuries older than that.
The version translated by Tripitaka Master Xuanzang (c. 602-664) (Taisho 251) is the standard text used by Buddhist temples throughout the world using Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese and translations from thereof. It is chanted (with minor modification) in sinoxenic pronunciations on a daily basis by the Sangha of most East Asian schools of Mahayana Buddhism (and if present by the laity as well) as part of the daily Morning Liturgy. In Japan, the Heart Sutra is recited by members of the Tendai School, the Shingon School, the Rinzai Zen School, the Sōtō Zen School and the Jōdo-shū School. The Heart Sutra is recited by most Korean schools of Buddhism especially the Chogye Seon School, the Taego Seon School and the Won School. The Heart Sutra is one of the most popular sutras in Vietnamese Buddhism. The Tibetan/Mongolian versions are extensively studied by the various Tibetan Buddhist schools, and is also chanted. Tibetan Buddhism also treats the Heart Sutra as a tantric text and has a tantric ceremony associated with it. The Heart Sutra is and was also chanted by Newar Buddhists and was also chanted during the Pala Empire period in India. The text has been translated into many languages, and dozens of English translations and commentaries have been published, along with an unknown number of informal versions on the internet.
The earliest extant dated text of the Heart Sutra is a stone stele dated to 661 CE. It was engraved three years before the death of Tripitaka Master Xuanzang and twelve years after its translation, by patrons from Yueyang County adjacent to Chang'an (today known as Xian) not far from where Xuanzang was doing his translation work at the time. It is part of the Fangshan Stone Sutra and located in Yunju Temple nearby Beijing. The second oldest extant dated text of the Heart Sutra is another stone stele located at Yunju Temple. It is dated to 669 CE. The third earliest extant dated text of the Heart Sūtra is a stone stele dated to 672 CE; formerly believed to be the oldest extant text which now stands in the Beilin Museum, Xian. All of the above stone steles have the same descriptive inscription : "(Tripitaka Master) Xuanzang was commanded by Emperor Tang Taizong to translate the Heart Sutra".
A palm-leaf manuscript found at the Horyuji Temple (See image top right) is traditionally dated to 609 CE and may be the earliest extant but undated Sanskrit manuscript of the Heart Sutra; it was brought to Japan in 609 CE, the actual text may date from even earlier. Jan Nattier doubts the traditional date, based on the reliability of the sources. However it is dated to circa 7th-8th Century CE by the Tokyo National Museum where it is currently kept.
The earliest version of the Heart Sutra may have been translated by Zhi Qian in 222-250 CE; however because it was already lost by Xuanzang's time whether it was actually a translation of the Heart Sutra is unknown. Edward Conze (based on Matsumoto Tokumyo's 1932 study Die Prajñāpāramitā-Literatur: nebst einem Specimen der Suvikrāntavikrāmi-Prajñāramitā) acknowledges that T250, the text attributed to Kumārajīva (fl. 4th Century), may be the work of his student;but Conze accepts it as the earliest extant Chinese version of the Heart Sutra. John McRae and Jan Nattier have argued that this translation was created by someone else, much later, based on Kumārajīva's Mahāprajñāpāramitāupadeśa (Great Treatise on the Perfection of Wisdom). Xuanzang's version of the Heart Sutra (T251) in the Chinese Tripiṭaka is the first extant version to use the title "Heart Sūtra" (心經 xīnjīng). Fukui Fumimasa has argued that 心經 or Heart Sutra may mean dhāraṇī sutra.
Conze states that approximately 90% of the Heart Sutra is derivable from the larger Prajñāpāramitā Sūtras, including the Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 25,000 lines or the Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, the Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 8,000 lines or Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra and the Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 100,000 lines or Śatasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra. Nattier on the other hand, hypothesize only 40% of the extant text of the Heart Sutra is a quotation from a commentary on the Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 25,000 lines or the Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, the Mahāprajñāpāramitāupadeśa (Great Treatise on the Perfection of Wisdom) written by Nāgārjuna and translated by Kumārajīva; the balance was newly composed. Based on textual patterns in the extant Sanskrit and Chinese versions of the Heart Sūtra, the Mahāprajñāpāramitāupadeśa or Great Treatise on the Perfection of Wisdom and the Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra or Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 25,000 lines, Nattier has argued that the supposedly earliest extant version of the Heart Sutra (Taisho 250 translated by Kumārajīva or another text (so far unknown) that Xuanzang supposedly received from an inhabitant of Sichuan prior to his travels to India) was probably first composed in China in the Chinese language from a mixture of material derived from Kumārajīva's Chinese translation of the Mahāprajñāpāramitāupadeśa or Great Treatise on the Perfection of Wisdom and new composition (60% of the text). Xuanzang's version of this text (Taisho 251) was later translated into Sanskrit (or back-translated, in the case of some of the sutra). Excluding the new composition, Kumarajiva's version of the Heart Sutra (T250) matches the corresponding parts of Kumārajīva's translation of the Mahāprajñāpāramitāupadeśa or Great Treatise on the Perfection of Wisdom almost exactly; the other, Xuanzang's version (T251) are missing two lines (one from the beginning and one from the middle) with a number of other differences including one different line and differences in terminology. The corresponding extant Sanskrit texts (ie. Heart Sutra and Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 25,000 lines), while agreeing in meaning, differ in virtually every word.It is unusual for Avalokiteśvara to be in the central role in a Prajñāpāramitā text. Early Prajñāpāramitā texts involve Subhuti, who is absent from both versions of the Heart Sūtra. The Buddha is only present in the longer version of the Heart Sutra. This could be considered evidence that the text is Chinese in origin. Jan Nattier points out that this mantra exists in several variations and is associated with several different Prajñāpāramitā texts. Nattier states that there is no direct or indirect evidence (such as a commentary) of a Sanskrit version before the 8th century, and she dates the first evidence (in the form of commentaries by Xuanzang's disciples Kuiji and Woncheuk, and Dunhuang manuscripts) of Chinese versions to the 7th century. Nattier believes that the corroborating evidence supports a Chinese version at least a century before a Sanskrit version.
Detail refutation of Nattier's hypothesis on the basis of historical accounts and comparison with the extant Sanskrit Buddhist manuscript fragments have been made primarily by scholars from East Asia. Amongst these scholars are Professors Harada Waso and Fukui Fumimasa. Harada rejects Nattier's claims that the central role of Avalokiteśvara points to a Chinese origin for the Heart Sutra. Harada notes that the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā or Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra in 8,000 lines (one of two claimants to oldest sutra in the prajñāpāramitā division of the Canon) has Subhuti, Sariputra as well as Ananda as speakers. Harada's hypothesis also notes the blending of Prajñāpāramitā and Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattvas in Mahayana Buddhist belief beginning from at least Faxian and Xuanzang's time (i.e. 4th - 5th century CE and 7th century CE); and therefore Avalokiteśvara's presence in the Heart Sutra is quite natural. In the long version of the Heart Sutra, Buddha, Avalokiteśvara and Sariputra are present and it is through the power of Buddha that Sariputra asks Avalokiteśvara for advice on the practice of the Perfection of Wisdom. Avalokiteśvara is also present as the speaker in one other prajñāpāramitā sutra. Lopez allows for the possibility that earlier Sanskrit commentaries of the Heart Sutra before the 8th century existed but were later lost. Furthermore Li states that of the Indic Palm-leaf manuscript (patra sutras) or sastras brought over to China, most were either lost or not translated. Red Pine, a practicing American Buddhist, for example, favours the idea of a lost manuscript of the Large Perfection of Wisdom Sutra (Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra) with the alternate Sanskrit wording, allowing for an original Indian composition. The original Sanskrit manuscript from which Xuanzang translated the Heart Sutra may still be extant and located at the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda.
There have been several critical editions of the Sanskrit text of the Heart Sūtra, including Müller (1881) and Vaidya (1961). To date, the definitive Sanskrit edition is Conze's, originally published in 1948, reprinted in 1967 and revised in 1973. Conze had access to 12 Nepalese manuscripts; seven manuscripts and inscriptions from China; two manuscripts from Japan; as well as several translations from the Chinese Canon and one from the Tibetan. There is a great deal of variation across the manuscripts in the title, the maṅgala verses, and within the text itself. Many of the manuscripts are corrupt or simply carelessly copied.
Jonathan Silk (1994) produced a critical edition of the Tibetan Kanjur version. The Kanjur only contains the long text, in two recensions, however a number of short texts in Tibetan were found at Dunhuang. Several studies have been published in Chinese and Japanese.
There is no published critical edition of the Chinese versions.
The title of the Heart Sutra varies depending on place and time. However with the exception of the no longer extant Zhi Qian’s translation into Chinese, for which we only know the title (which when back-translated into Sanskrit is ‘’Mahāprajñāpāramitā-dhāraṇī-sūtra’’) and Kumarajiva’s translation into Chinese which when back-translated into Sanskrit is ‘’Mahāprajñāpāramitā–mahāvidyā-sūtra’’, the rest of the extant Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan and other language manuscripts' titles all include the words “hṛdaya” usually translated as “heart” and “prajñāpāramitā” usually translated as “perfection of wisdom”. None of the extant Sanskrit versions have the word “sūtra” in their titles. Examples of Sanskrit titles include: 1. āryaprajñāpāramitāhṛdayaṃ 2. ārya-pañcaviṃśatikā-prajñāpāramitā-hṛdaya nāma dhāraṇī both used in the 18th- 19th century Nepalese Sanskrit manuscripts used by Conze in his 1948 study and 3. prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya used by the Hōryū-ji Temple Sanskrit text dated by the Tokyo National Museum to the 7th – 8th century CE and also a Tibetan version’s Sanskrit title. 4. bhagavatīprajñāpāramitāhṛdaya is another Tibetan version’s Sanskrit title.
In the Tibetan text the title is given first in Sanskrit and then in Tibetan: Sanskrit: भगवतीप्रज्ञापारमिताहृदय (Bhagavatīprajñāpāramitāhṛdaya), Tibetan: བཅོམ་ལྡན་འདས་མ་ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པའི་སྙིང་པོ, Wylie: bcom ldan 'das ma shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i snying po
In other languages, the commonly used title is an abbreviation of Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayasūtraṃ : i.e. The Prajñāhṛdaya Sūtra. They are as follows: e.g. Korean: Banya Shimgyeong (반야심경 / 般若心經); Japanese: Hannya Shingyō (はんにゃしんぎょう / 般若心経); Vietnamese:Bát-nhã tâm kinh (chữ Nho: 般若心經).
Various commentators divide this text into different numbers of sections. In the long version, we have the traditional opening "Thus have I heard" and Buddha along with a community of bodhisattvas and monks gathered with Avalokiteśvara and Sariputra at Gridhakuta (a mountain peak located at Rajgir, the traditional site where the majority of the Perfection of Wisdom teachings were given) , when through the power of Buddha, Sariputra asks Avalokiteśvara for advice on the practice of the Perfection of Wisdom. The sutra then describes the experience of liberation of the bodhisattva of compassion, Avalokiteśvara, as a result of vipassanā gained while engaged in deep meditation to awaken the faculty of prajña (wisdom). The insight refers to apprehension of the fundamental emptiness (śūnyatā) of all phenomena, known through and as the five aggregates of human existence (skandhas): form (rūpa), feeling (vedanā), volitions (saṅkhāra), perceptions (saṃjñā), and consciousness (vijñāna).
The specific sequence of concepts listed in lines 12-20 ("...in emptiness there is no form, no sensation, ... no attainment and no non-attainment") is the same sequence used in the Sarvastivadin Samyukta Agama; this sequence differs in comparable texts of other sects. On this basis, Red Pine has argued that the Heart Sūtra is specifically a response to Sarvastivada teachings that, in the sense "phenomena" or its constituents, are real. Lines 12-13 enumerate the five skandhas. Lines 14-15 list the twelve ayatanas or abodes. Line 16 makes a reference to the eighteen dhatus or elements of consciousness, using a conventional shorthand of naming only the first (eye) and last (conceptual consciousness) of the elements. Lines 17-18 assert the emptiness of the Twelve Nidānas, the traditional twelve links of dependent origination. Line 19 refers to the Four Noble Truths.
Avalokiteśvara addresses Śariputra, who was the promulgator of abhidharma according to the scriptures and texts of the Sarvastivada and other early Buddhist schools, having been singled out by the Buddha to receive those teachings. Avalokiteśvara famously states, "Form is empty (śūnyatā). Emptiness is form", and declares the other skandhas to be equally empty – that is, dependently originated. Avalokiteśvara then goes through some of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings such as the Four Noble Truths and explains that in emptiness none of these notions apply. This is interpreted according to the two truths doctrine as saying that teachings, while accurate descriptions of conventional truth, are mere statements about reality – they are not reality itself – and that they are therefore not applicable to the ultimate truth that is by definition beyond mental understanding. Thus the bodhisattva, as the archetypal Mahayana Buddhist, relies on the perfection of wisdom, defined in the Mahāprajñāpāramitā Sūtra to be the wisdom that perceives reality directly without conceptual attachment thereby achieving nirvana.
All Buddhas of the three ages (past, present and future) rely on the Perfection of Wisdom to reach unexcelled complete Enlightenment. The Perfection of Wisdom is the all powerful Mantra, the great enlightening mantra, the unexcelled mantra, the unequalled mantra, able to dispel all suffering. This is true and not false. The Perfection of Wisdom is then condensed in the mantra with which the sutra concludes: "Gate Gate Pāragate Pārasamgate Bodhi Svāhā" (literally "Gone gone, gone beyond, gone utterly beyond, Enlightenment hail!"). In the long version, Buddha praises Avalokiteśvara for giving the exposition of the Perfection of Wisdom and all gathered rejoice in its teaching. Many schools traditionally have also praised the sutra by uttering three times the equivalent of "Mahāprajñāpāramitā" after the end of the recitation of the short version.
The Heart Sūtra mantra in different languages:
This was transliterated by other Mahayana Buddhist traditions in China and Tibet, and then spread to other regions such as Korea, Vietnam, and Japan. Classical transliterations of the mantra include:
Two commentaries of the Heart Sutra were composed by pupils of 玄奘 Xuánzàng, 원측 (圓測) [Woncheuk] and 窺基 [Kuījī], in the late 7th or early 8th century. These appear to be the earliest extant commentaries on the text. Both have been translated into English (Hyun Choo 2006; Shih & Lusthaus 2006). Both Kuījī and Woncheuk's commentaries approach the Heart Sutra from a Yogachara viewpoint; however, Kuījī's commentary also presents Madhyamaka viewpoints as well and is therefore the earliest surviving Madhyamaka commentary on the Heart Sutra.
The chief Tang Dynasty commentaries have all now been translated into English.
|Chinese Title||English Title||Taisho Tripitaka No.||Author|
|《般若波羅蜜多心經幽贊》 ( 2 卷)||Comprehensive Commentary on the Prañāpāramitā Heart Sutra||T1710||【唐 窺基撰】 [Tang Dynasty. Kuījī 窺基]|
|《般若波羅蜜多心經 贊》 ( 1 卷) ||Prajñāpāramitā Heart Sutra Commentary||T1711||【唐 圓測撰】[Tang Dynasty. Woncheuk 원측 / 圓測 (pinyin :Yuáncè) ]|
|《般若波羅蜜多心經 略疏》 ( 1 卷) ||Brief Commentary on the Prajñāpāramitā Heart Sutra||T1712||【唐 法藏述】 [Tang Dynasty. Fǎzáng 法藏]|
|《般若心經疏》( 1 卷) ||A Commentary on the Prajñāpāramitā Heart Sutra||M522||【唐·靖邁撰】[Tang Dynasty. Jìngmài 靖邁]|
|《般若心経秘鍵》( 1 卷) ||Secret Key to the Heart Sutra||T2203A||【平安·空海】[Heian. Kūkai 空海]|
|《心經直說》( 1 卷) ||Straightforward Explanation of the Heart Sutra||M542||【明·德清撰】[Ming Dynasty. Déqīng 德清]|
|《心經說》( 29 卷) (參11 卷）||Explanation of the Heart Sutra||M1452 (Scroll 11)||【明·紫柏撰】[Ming Dynasty. Zǐbǎi 紫柏]|
|《心經釋要》( 1 卷) ||Explanation of the Keypoints to the Heart Sutra||M555||【明·蕅益智旭撰】[Ming Dynasty. Jiùyì zhìxù 蕅益智旭]|
|《般若心経毒語》||Zen Words for the Heart||?||【德川 白隠慧鶴】[Tokugawa. Hakuin Ekaku 白隠慧鶴]|
Eight Indian commentaries survive in Tibetan translation and have been the subject of two books by Donald Lopez. These typically treat the text either from a Madhyamaka point of view, or as a tantra. The Eight Indian Commentaries are:
|Sanskrit Title||English Title||Peking Tripitaka No.||Author|
|Āryaprajñāpāramitāhṛdayaṭīkā||Vast Explanation of the Noble Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom||No. 5217||Vimalamitra (f. ca. 797 CE -810 CE)|
|Prajñāhṛdayaṭīkā||Atīśa's Explanation of the Heart Sutra||No. 5222||Atīśa (982 CE - 1045 CE)|
|Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayamaṭīkā||Commentary on the 'Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom||No. 5221||Kamalaśīla (740 CE - 795 CE)|
|Mantravivṛtaprajñāhṛdayavṛtti||Commentary on the Heart Sutra as Mantra||No. 5840||Śrīsiṃha (probably 8th - 9th century CE)|
|Āryaprajñāpāramitāhṛdayavyākhyā||Explanation of the Noble Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom||No. 5218||Jñānamitra|
|Āryaprajñāpāramitāhṛdayaṭīkā||Vast Commentary on the Noble Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom||No. 5220||Praśāstrasena|
|Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayārthamaparijñāna||Complete Understanding of the Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom||No. 5223||Śrī Mahājana|
|Bhagavatīprajñāpāramitāhṛdayathapradīpanāmaṭīkā||Commentary on the Bhagavati Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom Sutra, Lamp of the Meaning||No. 5219||Vajrāpaṇi|
The text has become increasingly popular amongst exegetes as a growing number of translations and commentaries attest. The Heart Sutra was already popular in Chan and Zen Buddhism, but has become a staple for Tibetan Lamas as well.
The first English translation was presented to the Royal Asiatic Society in 1863 by Samuel Beal, and published in their journal in 1865. Beal used a Chinese text corresponding to T251 and a 9th Century Chan commentary by Dàdiān Bǎotōng (大顛寶通) [ca. 815 CE]. In 1881, Max Müller published a Sanskrit text based on the Hōryū-ji manuscript along an English translation.
The Heart Sutra has been translated into modern languages very often.
There are more than 40 published English translations of the Heart Sutra from Sanskrit, Chinese, and Tibetan, beginning with Beal (1865). Almost every year new translations and commentaries are published. The following is a representative sample.
|Geshe Rabten||Echoes of Voidness||Wisdom||Includes the Heart Sutra with Tibetan commentary||1983||ISBN 0-86171-010-X|
|Donald S. Lopez, Jr.||The Heart Sutra Explained||SUNY||The Heart Sutra with a summary of Indian commentaries||1987||ISBN 0-88706-590-2|
|Thich Nhat Hanh||The Heart of Understanding
"Translation amended 2014". Retrieved 2017-02-26.
|Parallax Press||The Heart Sutra with a Vietnamese Thiền commentary||1988||ISBN 0-938077-11-2|
|Norman Waddell||Zen Words for the Heart: Hakuin's Commentary on the Heart Sutra||Shambhala Publications||Hakuin Ekaku's commentary on Heart Sutra||1996||ISBN 9781570621659|
|Donald S. Lopez, Jr.||Elaborations on Emptiness||Princeton||The Heart Sutra with eight complete Indian and Tibetan commentaries||1998||ISBN 0-691-00188-X|
|Edward Conze||Buddhist Wisdom: The Diamond Sutra and The Heart Sutra||Random House||The Diamond Sutra and The Heart Sutra, along with commentaries on the texts and practices of Buddhism||2001||ISBN 978-0375726002|
|Chan Master Sheng Yen||There Is No Suffering: A Commentary on the Heart Sutra||Dharma Drum Publications||Heart Sutra with Modern Commentary on Heart Sutra from Major Chan Master From Taiwan China||2001||ISBN 1-55643-385-9|
|Tetsugen Bernard Glassman||Infinite Circle: Teachings in Zen||Shambhala Publications||Translations and commentaries of The Heart Sutra and The Identity of Relative and Absolute as well as Zen precepts||2003||ISBN 9781590300794|
|Geshe Sonam Rinchen||Heart Sutra: An Oral Commentary||Snow Lion||Concise translation and commentary from a Tibetan Buddhist perspective||2003||ISBN 9781559392013|
|Red Pine||The Heart Sutra: the Womb of Buddhas||Counterpoint||Heart Sutra with commentary||2004||ISBN 978-1593760090|
|14th Dalai Lama||Essence of the Heart Sutra||Wisdom Publications||Heart Sutra with commentary by the 14th Dalai Lama||2005||ISBN 978-0-86171-284-7|
|Geshe Tashi Tsering||Emptiness: The Foundation of Buddhist Thought||Wisdom Publications||A guide to the topic of emptiness from a Tibetan Buddhist perspective, with English translation of the Heart Sutra||2009||ISBN 978-0-86171-511-4|
|Geshe Kelsang Gyatso||The New Heart of Wisdom: An explanation of the Heart Sutra||Tharpa Publications||English translation of the Heart Sutra with commentary||2012||ISBN 978-1906665043|
|Karl Brunnholzl||The Heart Attack Sutra: A New Commentary on the Heart Sutra||Shambhala Publications||Modern commentary||2012||ISBN 9781559393911|
|Doosun Yoo||Thunderous Silence: A Formula For Ending Suffering: A Practical Guide to the Heart Sutra||Wisdom Publications||English translation of the Heart Sutra with Korean Seon commentary||2013||ISBN 978-1614290537|
|Kazuaki Tanahashi||The Heart Sutra: A Comprehensive Guide to the Classic of Mahayana Buddhism||Shambhala Publications||English translation of the Heart Sutra with history and commentary||2015||ISBN 978-1611800968|
In the centuries following the historical Xuanzang, an extended tradition of literature fictionalizing the life of Xuanzang and glorifying his special relationship with the Heart Sūtra arose, of particular note being the Journey to the West (16th century/Ming dynasty). In chapter nineteen of Journey to the West, the fictitious Xuanzang learns by heart the Heart Sūtra after hearing it recited one time by the Crow's Nest Zen Master, who flies down from his tree perch with a scroll containing it, and offers to impart it. A full text of the Heart Sūtra is quoted in this fictional account. The mantra of the Heart Sūtra was used as the lyrics for the opening theme song of the 2011 Chinese television series Journey to the West. In episode 4 of Haganai Next, Yukimura chants this while on a roller coaster.
In the 2003 Korean film Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter...and Spring, the apprentice is ordered by his Master to carve the Chinese characters of the sutra into the wooden monastery deck to quiet his heart.
Schopenhauer, in the final words of his main work, compared his doctrine to the Śūnyatā of the Heart Sūtra. In Volume 1, § 71 of The World as Will and Representation, Schopenhauer wrote: "…to those in whom the will [to continue living] has turned and has denied itself, this very real world of ours, with all its suns and Milky Ways, is — nothing." To this, he appended the following note: "This is also the Prajna–Paramita of the Buddhists, the 'beyond all knowledge,' in other words, the point where subject and object no longer exist."
Calligraphy: Heart Sutra and Usnisa Vijaya Dharani Sutra in Sanskrit, Late Gupta dynasty, 7th–8th century (Important Cultural Property)
在藏傳的經論中經常提到：“佛說八萬四千法門中，般若法門最為殊勝。” (tr. into English : It is often mentioned in the Tibetan Kangyur and Tengyur "Among the eighty four thousand Dharma Teachings taught by the Buddha, the Prajñāpāramitā Dharma Teaching is the most excellent."
般若波羅蜜多心經一卷 大唐三藏玄奘譯 (trans. to English Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya Sutra (one scroll) translated by Tang Dynasty Tripitaka Master Xuanzang (649 CE)
on page 9: Bcom-ldan-hdas-ma ses-rab-kyi-pha-rol-tu-phyin-pahi snin-po [Peking (Beijing) Kangyur No.] 21, 531 and on page 101: [Peking (Beijing) Kangyur No.] 21 [Taisho No.] 257, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256
阿難。般若波羅蜜是怛薩阿竭呵羅訶三耶三佛母。 (tr. to English: Ananda, The Perfection of Wisdom is the mother of Tathagatas, Arahants and Samyaksam-Buddhas)
三世諸佛之母也。(tr. to English: (The Perfection of Wisdom) is the mother of Buddhas of the three ages (ie. Past, Present and Future).)
English Summary of Contents: The webpage lists the practices of the major schools of Japanese Buddhism re: Heart Sutra. In addition to the above, it also states that Jōdo Shinshū does not use the Heart Sutra. The Jōdo Shinshū Ōtani-ha School also does not use the Heart Sutra. The Nichiren School which relies on the Lotus Sutra does not chant any other sutra besides the Lotus Sutra.
而房山石经中唐高宗显庆六年 （661年） 镌刻的 《心经》 是现存最早的版本， 镌刻时玄奘尚在世， 三年以后才圆寂。 这部石经明确题署： “三藏法师玄奘奉诏译”，而且造经功德主来自邻近长安的栎阳县， 距离玄奘当时所在的大慈恩寺不远。同时， 唐高宗总章二年（669 年）镌刻的《心经》， 同样题署“三藏法师玄奘奉诏译”。 此外， 西安碑林收藏的咸亨三年（672 年）弘福寺沙门怀仁集王羲之书《大唐三藏圣教序》 后面的 《心经》， 也题署“玄奘奉诏译”。 由此可以确证： 玄奘翻译了 《心经》， 而且是“奉”唐太宗的“诏”命翻译的。 (tr. to English: …amongst Fangshan Stone Sutra Steles, the engraved stone stele of the Heart Sutra dated to 661 CE is the earliest extant copy of [Xuanzang’s 649 translation of] the Heart Sutra, made while Xuanzang was still alive, as he passed away three years after the engraving. This stone sutra stele explicitly states in its colophon : “Tripitaka Master Xuanzang was ordered to translate”;moreover the merits for engraving the stele came mainly from Yueyang County adjacent from Chang’an (today’s Xian), which is not far from Daci’en Monastery [where Xuanzang was translating sutras at the time]. Also there is another engraved stone stele of the Heart Sutra [located at Fangshan] dated to 669 CE which also has the same colophon inscription i.e. “Tripitaka Master Xuanzang was ordered to translate”. In addition to these, we have the Xian's Stele Forest [stone stele] dated to 672 CE, Hongfu Temple’s [another temple where Tripitaka Master Xuanzang translated sutras] Ven. Master Huairen’s [commission of the (re)engraving of] “Foreword of the Holy Teaching of the Tripitaka of the Great Tang” [written by Emperor Tang Taizong] [reign 626 CE - 649 CE] and on the reverse the “Heart Sutra” [both] in the collected calligraphic style of Wang Xizhi, also is inscribed with “Xuanzang was ordered to translate”. Therefore these examples certified that Xuanzang did indeed translate the Heart Sutra and furthermore was ordered to do so by Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty.)
Calligraphy: Heart Sutra and Usnisa Vijaya Dharani Sutra in Sanskrit, Late Gupta dynasty, 7th–8th century (Important Cultural Property)
『八千頌般若』では部派仏教の伝統に抵触しない世尊、大比丘眾（特にスブーテイ、シャーリプトラ、アーナンダ等）、弥勒、天部といった登場人物たちによって過激を＜般若波羅蜜多＞思想が討義されている。(English tr to follow)
いずれにしても『陀羅尼集経』卷第一「釈迦仏頂三昧陀羅尼品」では＜仏頂尊＞信仰を核とする＜般若波羅蜜多（般若菩薩）＞信仰と＜観音菩薩＞信仰との併合が看取されるのは事実である。このこと、4‐５世紀のインドの大乗仏教徒たちが「般若波羅蜜」や「観世音菩薩」などを一緒に信仰し供養していた事実を伝える法顕による目擊談とも一致する。 (English tr to follow)
在现存的汉文大藏经中，将近1500部6000卷佛教典籍译的梵文贝叶经，如果包括译后失专或未翻译的经典内，传到汉地的梵文贝叶经至少在5000部以上。(tr. to English: In the currently extant Chinese Tripitakas, there are close to 1500 sections of 6000 scrolls worth of Sanskrit patra sutras translated into Chinese. If we include the translations that are no longer extant and the sutras and sastras that were never translated, the Indic patra sutras and śāstras that arrived in China would be at the very least over 5000 sections of patra sutras / śāstras.)
所以有人猜想玄奘大师所取回的贝叶经可能就藏在大雁塔的地宫。(tr. to English: Therefore there are people (scholars) who conjecture that the (657) patra sutras Xuanzang brought back may be stored in an underground chamber of the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda.)
陕西）省社科院宗教研究所所长王亚荣日前介绍，和法门寺宝塔下有地宫一样，大雁塔下也藏有千年地宫。据推测，玄奘自印度取经归来后，所带回的珍宝有很多藏在大雁塔下的地宫里。...对于大雁塔有地宫一说，...解守涛介绍，去年，相关部门对大雁塔的内部结构进行探测时，探地雷达曾经探测出大雁塔地下有空洞...(tr. to English: (Shaanxi Province) Academy of Social Science Head of Religious Research Wang Yarong yesterday briefed underneath the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda is an underground chamber over 1000 years old just like the one underneath Famen Temple’s True Relic Pagoda. Based on her hypothesis, Xuanzang after returning from India, stored many of the treasures he brought back in the underground chamber of the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda....Regarding the hypothesis on the underground chamber in the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Jie Shoutao mentioned last year, the relevant departments while investigating the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda using radar detected a hollow area underneath the pagoda...)
最も名高い空海 『般若心経秘鍵』 の科文は以下のとうり。 仏說摩訶般若波羅蜜多心経 （空海による還梵提号： buddhā-bhasa-mahā-prajñāpāramitā-hṛdayasūtraṃ.) (tr to English: The most famous Kūkai in his (commentary on the Heart Sutra written in 818 CE Taisho 2203A) called "Secret Key to the Heart Sutra" (original located at the SAT Daizōkyō Text Database: )states The Buddha Speaks the Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra (the title Kūkai uses to translate back into Sanskrit is : buddhā-bhasa-mahā-prajñapāramitā-hṛdayasūtraṃ.)) cf Footnote 1
Gate gate pāragate pārasamgate bodhi svāhā... The words here do have a literal meaning: “Gone, gone, gone beyond, gone utterly beyond, Enlightenment hail!
cf footnote (b)-refers to Ōtani University (大谷大学) copy (ed.) of Peking Tripitaka which according to Sakurabe Bunkyō, was printed in China 1717/1720.
北京版。又名嵩祝寺版。清康熙二十二年（1683）據西藏霞盧寺寫本在北京嵩祝寺刊刻，先刻了甘珠爾。至雍正二年（1724）續刻了丹珠爾。早期印本大部為硃刷，也稱赤字版。版片毀於光緒二十六年庚子之役。(tr. to English: Beijing (Peking Tripitaka) ed., is also known as Sōngzhù Temple ed. In 1683, Beijing's Sōngzhù Temple started carving woodblocks for the Kangyur based on manuscripts from Tibet's Xiálú Temple. It continued to carved woodblocks of the Tengyur in 1724. The early impressions were printed in vermilion ink and are also known as the 'Vermilion Text Edition.' The woodblocks were destroyed in 1900 during the Boxer Rebellion.)
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