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|Possible time of origin||20,000–25,000 YBP|
|Possible place of origin||Southwest Asia|
|Descendants||H* lineages; subclades H1, H2, H3, H4, H5'36, H6, H7, H8, H9, H10, H11, H12, H13, H14, H15, H16, H18, H19, H20, H22, H23, H24, H25, H26, H28, H29, H31, H32, H33, H34, H35, H37, H38, H39, 16129(H17+H27), 16129(H21+H30)|
|Defining mutations||G2706A, T7028C|
Haplogroup H is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. The clade is believed to have originated in Southwest Asia, around 20,000 to 25,000 years ago. Mitochondrial haplogroup H is today predominantly found in Europe, and is believed to have evolved before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). It first expanded in the northern Near East and Southern Caucasus between 33,000 and 26,000 years ago, and later migrations from Iberia suggest that the clade reached Europe before the Last Glacial Maximum. The haplogroup has also spread to parts of Africa, Siberia and inner Asia. Today, around 40% of all maternal lineages in Europe belong to haplogroup H.
Haplogroup H is a descendant of haplogroup HV. The Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS), which until recently was the human mitochondrial sequence to which all others were compared, belongs to haplogroup H2a2a1 (human mitochondrial sequences should now be compared with the ancestral Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS)). Several independent studies conclude that haplogroup H probably evolved in West Asia c. 25,000 years ago. It was carried to Europe by migrations c. 20,000–25,000 years ago, and spread with population of the southwest of the continent. Its arrival was roughly contemporary with the rise of the Gravettian culture. The spread of subclades H1, H3 and the sister haplogroup V reflect a second intra-European expansion from the Franco-Cantabrian region after the last glacial maximum, c. 13,000 years ago.
In July 2008 ancient mtDNA from an individual called Paglicci 23, whose remains were dated to 28,000 years ago and excavated from Paglicci Cave (Apulia, Italy), were found to be identical to the Cambridge Reference Sequence in HVR1. This once was believed to indicate haplogroup H, but researchers now recognize that CRS can also appear in U or HV. Haplogroup HV derives from the haplogroup R0 which in turn derives from haplogroup R is a descendant of macro-haplogroup N like its sibling M, is a descendant of haplogroup L3.
Haplogroup H has also been found among Iberomaurusian specimens dating from the Epipaleolithic at the Taforalt and Afalou prehistoric sites. Among the Taforalt individuals, around 29% of the observed haplotypes belonged to various H subclades, including H1 (2/24; 8%), H103 (1/24; 4%), H14b1 (1/24; 4%), H2a2a1 (1/24; 4%), and H2a1e1a (1/24; 4%). A further 41% of the analysed haplotypes could be assigned to either haplogroup H or haplogroup U. Among the Afalou individuals, the H subclades were represented by H103 (1/9; 11%). A further 44% of the analysed haplotypes could be assigned to either haplogroup H or haplogroup U (3/9; 33%) or to haplogroup H14b1 or haplogroup JT (1/9; 11%).
The clade has been observed among ancient Egyptian mummies excavated at the Abusir el-Meleq archaeological site in Middle Egypt, which date from the Pre-Ptolemaic/late New Kingdom and Ptolemaic periods.
The majority of the European populations have an overall haplogroup H frequency of 40%–50%. Frequencies decrease in the southeast of the continent. The clade reaches 20% in the Near East and Caucasus, 17% in Iran, and <10% in the Arabian Peninsular, Northern India and Central Asia.
Undifferentiated haplogroup H has been found among Palestinians (14%), Syrians (13.6%), Druze (10.6%), Iraqis (9.5%), Somalis (6.7%), Egyptians (5.7% in El-Hayez; 14.7% in Gurna), Saudis (5.3–10%), Soqotri (3.1%), Nubians (1.3%), and Yemenis (0–13.9%).
H1 encompasses an important fraction of Western European mtDNA lineages, reaching its local peak among contemporary Basques (27.8%). The clade also occurs at high frequencies elsewhere in the Iberian Peninsula, as well as in the Maghreb (Tamazgha). The haplogroup frequency is above 10% in many other parts of Europe (France, Sardinia, parts of the British Isles, Alps, large portions of Eastern Europe), and surpasses 5% in nearly all of the continent. Its H1b subclade is most common in eastern Europe and NW Siberia.
As of 2010[update], the highest frequency of the H1 subclade has been found among the Tuareg inhabiting the Fezzan region in Libya (61%). The basal H1* haplogroup is found among the Tuareg inhabiting the Gossi area in Mali (4.76%).
Haplogroup H has been found in various fossils that were analysed for ancient DNA, including specimens associated with the Linearbandkeramik culture (H1e, Halberstadt-Sonntagsfeld, 1/22 or ~5%; H1 or H1au1b, Karsdorf, 1/2 or 50%), Germany Middle Neolithic (H1e1a, Esperstedt, 1/1 or 100%), Iberia Early Neolithic (H1, El Prado de Pancorbo, 1/2 or 50%), Iberia Middle Neolithic (H1, La Mina, 1/4 or 25%), and Iberia Chalcolithic (H1t, El Mirador Cave, 1/12 or ~8%). Haplogroup H has been observed in ancient Guanche fossils excavated in Gran Canaria and Tenerife on the Canary Islands, which have been radiocarbon-dated to between the 7th and 11th centuries CE. At the Tenerife site, these clade-bearing individuals were found to belong to the H1cf subclade (1/7; ~14%); at the Gran Canaria site, the specimens carried the H2a subhaplogroup (1/4; 25%). Additionally, ancient Guanche (Bimbaches) individuals excavated in Punta Azul, El Hierro, Canary Islands were all found to belong to the H1 maternal subclade. These locally born individuals were dated to the 10th century and carried the H1-16260 haplotype, which is exclusive to the Canary Islands and Algeria.
|Region or Population||H1%||No. of subjects|
|Tuareg (West Sahel)||23.3||90|
|Guineans (Guiné Bissau)||0||372|
|Volga-Ural Finnic speakers||13.6||125|
|Greece (Aegean islands)||1.6||247|
|Arabian Peninsula (incl. Yemen, Oman)||0.8||493|
|Dubai (United Arab Emirates)||0.4||249|
H3 is found throughout the whole of Europe and in the Maghreb but does not exist in the Far East[vague], and is believed to have originated among Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in south-western Europe between 9 000 and 11 000 years ago. H3 represents the second largest fraction of the H genome after H1 and has a somewhat similar distribution, with peaks in Portugal, Spain, Scandinavia and Finland. It is common in Portugal (12%), Sardinia (11%), Galicia (10%), the Basque country (10%), Ireland (6%), Norway (6%), Hungary (6%) and southwestern France (5%). Studies have suggested haplogroup H3 is highly protective against AIDS progression.
Example of H3 sub-groups are:
The basal H3* haplogroup is found among the Tuareg inhabiting the Gossi area in Mali (4.76%).
H5 may have evolved in West Asia, where it is most frequent and diverse in the Western Caucasus. However, its H5a subclade has a stronger representation in Europe, though at low levels.
The H2, H6 and H8 haplogroups are somewhat common in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus. They may be the most common H subclades among Central Asians and have also been found in West Asia. H2a5 has been found in the Basque Country, Spain, and in Norway, Ireland and Slovakia. H6a1a1a is common among Ashkenazi Jews.
These H4, H7 and H13 subhaplogroups are present in both Europe and West Asia; the H13 subclade is also found in the Caucasus. They are quite rare. H4 is often found in Iberia  and along with H13 and H2 account for 42% of H lineages in Egypt.
H11 is commonly found in Central Europe.
H18 occurs on the Arabian Peninsula. 
These subclades are found mostly in Europe, South-West Asia and Central Asia.
This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup H subclades is based on Build 16(February 2014) of the Phylotree, an internationally accepted standard. The full tree can be viewed at Phylotree.
|mtDNA HG "H" p-tree|
In his popular book The Seven Daughters of Eve, Bryan Sykes named the originator of this mtDNA haplogroup Helena. Stephen Oppenheimer uses the very similar name Helina in his book The Origins of the British.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Haplogroup H (mtDNA).|
Phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups
|Mitochondrial Eve (L)|