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Hangul consonant and vowel tables

The following tables of consonants and vowels of the Korean alphabet (jamo) display the basic forms in blue in the first row, and their derivatives in the following rows. They are separated into tables of initials, vowels and finals.

Jamo are romanized according to the Revised Romanization's transliteration rules. Thus, the table should not be used for normal transcription of Korean language, as sound changes must be observed.

Leading consonants (choseong)

Basic jamo Hangul
Romanized g/k n d r/l m b s -/ng j ch k t p h
Composite jamo Hangul
Romanized kk tt pp ss jj

Medial vowels (jungseong)

Basic +i
Basic Hangul
Romanized a eo o u eu i ae e oe wi ui
y+ Hangul
Romanized ya yeo yo yu yae ye
w+ Hangul
Romanized wa wo oe wi wae we

Trailing consonants (jongseong)

Basic jamo Hangul
Romanized g n d r/l m b s ng j ch k t p h
Composite jamo Hangul
Romanized kk nj lg bs ss
Romanized gs nh lm
Romanized lb
Romanized ls
Romanized lt
Romanized lp
Romanized lh


Several collation sequences are used to order words. The first sequence is official in South Korea (and is the basic binary order of codepoints in Unicode); sequences of the second type are common in North Korea, differing on the treatment of composite jamo consonants in syllable-leading (choseong) and -trailing (jongseong) position, and on the treatment of composite jamo vowels in syllable-medial (jungseong) position.

South Korean collation
Principle Sort every composite jamo grouped after their leading single jamo

ㄱ (ㄲ) ㄷ (ㄸ) ㅂ (ㅃ) ㅅ (ㅆ) ㅈ (ㅉ)


ㅏ ㅐ ㅑ ㅒ ㅓ ㅔ ㅕ ㅖ ㅗ ㅘ ㅙ ㅚ ㅜ ㅝ ㅞ ㅟ ㅠ ㅡ ㅢ

North Korean collation
Principle Sort all single jamo (except leading ieung) before all composite jamo and leading ieung

ㄱ ㄴ ㄷ ㄹ ㅁ ㅂ ㅅ ‑ᆼ ㅈ ㅊ ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅎ ㄲ ㄸ ㅃ ㅆ ㅉ ᄋ‑


ㅏ ㅑ ㅓ ㅕ ㅗ ㅛ ㅜ ㅠ ㅡ ㅣ ㅐ ㅒ ㅔ ㅖ ㅚ ㅟ ㅢ ㅘ ㅙ ㅝ ㅞ

Consonant letters' names

Variants are given in brackets.

Consonants South Korean names North Korean names
Hangul Romanized Hangul Romanized Hangul Romanized
g 기역 giyeok 기윽 gieuk
kk 쌍기역 ssanggiyeok 된기윽 doengieuk
n 니은 nieun 니은 nieun
d 디귿 digeut 디읃 dieut
tt 쌍디귿 ssangdikeut 된디읃 doendieut
r, l 리을 rieul 리을 rieul
m 미음 mieum 미음 mieum
b 비읍 bieup 비읍 bieup
pp 쌍비읍 ssangbieup 된비읍 doenbieup
s 시옷 siot 시읏 sieut
ss 쌍시옷 ssangsiot 된시읏 doensieut
-, -ng 이응 ieung 이응 ieung
j 지읒 jieut 지읒 jieut
jj 쌍지읒 ssangjieut 된지읒 doenjieut
ch 치읓 chieut 치읓 chieut
k 키읔 kieuk 키읔 kieuk
t 티읕 tieut 티읕 tieut
p 피읖 pieup 피읖 pieup
h 히읗 hieut 히읗 hieut

Consonant names in the 15th century seem to have ended in a vowel (without adding the last consonant repeating a shortened version of the initial), judging from 1451 Hunmin Jeongeum Eonhae's forms such as "ㄱ는", which may have been pronounced geuneun.

Hangul syllables

Below are 19 tables of 28×21 syllables. Altogether there are 11,172 (19×21×28) possible syllables, found in the Hangul Syllables Unicode block (U+AC00–U+D7AF). These possible syllables are not all in use. Jump to tables with initial letter:

See also