The most common African drum known to westerners is the djembe, a large, single-headed drum with a goblet shape.
The Ashiko is another African drum in the shape of a truncated cone. Similar to the Djembe it is rope strung. This drum is easily recognized as having straight sides (many actually have a slight curve but appear straight compared to most hand drums). The ashiko contrary to popular belief is traditionally mounted with wild game heads such as a gazzel. Most modern Ashikos are made with goat skin as a matter of convenience or legality. A more traditional-sounding Ashiko can be created using hand-picked goat skins that imitate the game skin or using deer skin (which requires more frequent tuning and maintenance). Ashiko drums are quite popular but less so than other types of hand drums and the difficulty in making sound like it should traditionally probably explains why they are less common. Most Ashikos found in common use have a non-traditional sound to them due to different skin types being used.
Bougarabou are African drums with cow skin heads. The base of the drum is shorter than a djembe and the goblet shape less pronounced. (This is the believed by some to be the African traditional predecessor of the Conga.)
The Tambora, a two-sided drum played with both a stick and a hand, is essential to the merengue dance of Dominican Republic.
The pandero or plenera, is a percussion instrument included in the group of frame drums. A set of these hand drums from Puerto Rico is usually performed in plena music. There are three sizes, primo or requinto (for playing solos), segundo or seguidor, and tercero or tumbador (for playing a fixed rhythm).