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Hōki (宝亀) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, "year name") after Jingo-keiun and before Ten'ō. This period spanned the years from October 770 through January 781.[1] The reigning emperor was Kōnin-tennō (光仁天皇).[2]

Change of era

  • 770 Hōki gannen (宝亀元年): The new era name was created to mark an event or series of events. The previous era ended and the new one commenced in Jingo-keiun 4, on the 18th day of the 8th month of 770.[3]

Events of the Hōki era

  • 23 October 770 (Hōki 1, 1st day of the 10th month): The era name was changed to mark the beginning of Emperor Konin's reign.[3]
  • 778 (Hōki 9): The emperor granted Kashima-jinja a divine seal for use on documents.[4]
  • 28 August 779 (Hōki 10, 7th month): Fujiwara no Momokawa died at age 48.[5]
  • 781 (Hōki 12, 4th month ): The emperor abdicated in favor of his son, who would later come to be known as Emperor Kanmu. Emperor Kōnin's reign had lasted for 11 years.[3]
  • 781 (Hōki 12, 12th month): Kōnin died at the age of 73.[6]


  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Hōki" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 343, p. 343, at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
  2. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 81–85., p. 81, at Google Books; Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 276–277; Varley, H. Paul. Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 147–148.
  3. ^ a b c Brown, p. 277.
  4. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1963) The Vicissitudes of Shinto, p. 206.
  5. ^ Titsingh, p. 84., p. 84, at Google Books
  6. ^ Brown, p. 277; Varley, p. 148.


  • Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; OCLC 251325323
  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
  • Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1963). The Vicissitudes of Shinto. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 186605327
  • Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Ōdai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
  • Varley, H. Paul. (1980). A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231049405; OCLC 6042764

External links

Preceded by
Era or nengō

Succeeded by