|• Total||255.8 km2 (98.8 sq mi)|
|• Density||121.5/km2 (315/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||5700, 5711|
Gyula (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈɟulɒ] ( listen), German: Jula, Romanian: Giula, Turkish: Göle) is a town in Békés County, Hungary. The town is best known for its Medieval castle and a thermal bath. Ferenc Erkel, the composer of the Hungarian national anthem, and Albrecht Dürer the Elder, the father of Albrecht Dürer, also were born in Gyula.
Gyula is located in the Great Hungarian Plain up on the River Fehér-Körös, 235 km (146 mi) southeast from Budapest and 5 km (3 mi) from the border with Romania. Békéscsaba-Gyula-Kötegyán railway line and Highway 44 also cross the town. Highway 44 is a four-lane expressway between Gyula and the county seat Békéscsaba.
The first recorded reference to Gyula was in a document dated 1313 which mentions a monastery called Gyulamonostora (Julamonustra in Latin). By 1332 the settlement around the monastery was being called Gyula / Jula. The construction of Gyula Castle began in the 14th century but finished only in the mid-16th century. It was the property of the Maróthy family and later John Corvinus, the illegitimate son of Matthias Corvinus. Turks conquered Gyula in 1566 and remained the part of the Ottoman Empire until 1694, when Christian troops liberated the area. Due to the wars, native Hungarian population fled from Gyula, Békés County became near uninhabited. The landlord János Harruckern invited German, Hungarian and Romanian settlers, who re-established the town in the early 18th century. Gyula became a popular tourist destination in the 20th century, the thermal bath was established in 1942 and expanded in 1959. The castle was restored in 1962.
According to the 2011 census the total population of Gyula was 31,067, of whom there were 25,895 (83.4%) Hungarians, 974 (3.1%) Romanians, 971 (3.1%) Germans and 102 (0.3%) Romani by ethnicity. In Hungary people can declare more than one ethnicity, so some people declared Hungarian and a minority one together. Gyula is the center of the small native Romanian community in Hungary.
In 2011 there were 5,726 (18.4%) Roman Catholic, 5,560 (17.9%) Hungarian Reformed (Calvinist), 606 (2.0%) Orthodox and 507 (1.6%) Lutheran in Gyula. 8,304 people (26.7%) were irreligious and 453 (1.5%) Atheist, while 9,012 people (29.0%) did not declare their religion.
- Gyula Castle (Gyulai vár)
- Thermal bath (Gyulai gyógyfürdő)
- 100 years-old confectionery (100 éves cukrászda)
- Town hall, 1861 (Városháza)
- Birth house of Ferenc Erkel (Erkel Ferenc szülőháza)
- Saint Michael Cathedral, 1825 (Szent Miklós katedrális)
- Roman Catholic church, 1775-1777 (Római katolikus templom)
- Roman Catholic chapel, 1738-1752, (Római katolikus kápolna)
Born in Gyula
- Imre Bródy (1891-1944), Hungarian physicist
- Albrecht Dürer the Elder (1427–1502), the father of Albrecht Dürer
- Ferenc Erkel (1810–1893), Hungarian composer
- Imre König (1901–1992), chess player
- George Pomutz (1818-1882), American diplomat and general
Lived in Gyula
Burials in Gyula
- John Corvin (1473-1504), King of Bosnia, illegitimate son of Matthias Corvinus
- Beatrice de Frangepan (1480-1510), wife of John Corvin
Twin Towns - Sister Cities
Gyula is twinned with:
- Antal Papp: Magyarország (Hungary), Panoráma, Budapest, 1982, ISBN 963 243 241 X, p. 860, pp. 453-456
- Magyarország autóatlasz, Dimap-Szarvas, Budapest, 2004, ISBN 963-03-7576-1
- Károly Kocsis (DSc, University of Miskolc) – Zsolt Bottlik (PhD, Budapest University) – Patrik Tátrai: Etnikai térfolyamatok a Kárpát-medence határon túli régióiban, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia (Hungarian Academy of Sciences) – Földrajtudományi Kutatóintézet (Academy of Geographical Studies); Budapest; 2006.; ISBN 963-9545-10-4, CD Atlas
- 2011 Hungarian census, Békés county
- Hungarian census 2011 - final data and methodology
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