|16th century CE-present|
|The Brahmic script and its descendants|
Gurmukhī , (Punjabi: ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ, IPA: [ˈɡʊɾmʊkʰiː]) is a Sikh script modified, standardized and used by the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad (1504–1552). Gurmukhi is used in the state of Punjab as the official script of the Punjabi language, a language that is also written in Perso-Arabic Shahmukhi script.
Modern Gurmukhī has thirty-five original letters plus six additional consonants, nine vowel diacritics, two diacritics for nasal sounds, one diacritic that geminates consonants, and three subscript characters. It is also known as Lindohi by Sindhi community
In current scholarship, the Gurmukhī script is generally believed to have roots in the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet by way of the Brahmi script, which developed further into the Northwestern group (Sharada, or Śāradā, and its descendants, including Landa and Takri), the Central group (Nagari and its descendants, including Devanagari, Gujarati and Modi) and the Eastern group (evolved from Siddhaṃ, including Bangla, Tibetan, and some Nepali scripts), as well as several prominent writing systems of Southeast Asia and Sinhala in Sri Lanka, in addition to scripts used historically in Central Asia for extinct languages like Saka and Tocharian. Gurmukhi is derived from Sharada in the Northwestern group, of which is the only major surviving member, with full modern currency. Notable features:
Gurmukhi evolved in cultural and historical circumstances notably different to other scripts, for the purpose of recording scriptures of Sikhism, a far less Sanskritized cultural tradition than others of the subcontinent. This independence from the Sanskritic model allowed it the freedom to evolve unique orthographical features. These include:
and other features.
Tarlochan Singh Bedi (1999) writes that the Gurmukhī script developed in the 10-14th centuries from the Devasesha stage of the Śāradā script, the intermediate phase being Siddha Matrika, before the final evolution into Gurmukhī. His argument is that from the 10th century, regional differences started to appear between the Śāradā script used in Punjab, the Hill States (partly Himachal Pradesh) and Kashmir. The regional Śāradā script evolved from this stage until the 14th century, when it starts to appear in the form of Gurmukhī. Indian epigraphists call this stage Devasesha, while Bedi prefers the name Pritham Gurmukhī or Proto-Gurmukhī.
The Sikh gurus adopted proto-Gurmukhī to write the Guru Granth Sahib, the religious scriptures of the Sikhs. Other contemporary scripts used in the Punjab were Takri and the Laṇḍā scripts. The Takri alphabet developed through the Devasesha stage of the Śāradā script and is found mainly in the Hill States such as Chamba, Himachal Pradesh, where it is called Chambyali, and in Jammu Division, where it is known as Dogri. The local Takri variants got the status of official scripts in some of the Punjab Hill States, and were used for both administrative and literary purposes until the 19th century. After 1948, when Himachal Pradesh was established as an administrative unit, the local Takri variants were replaced by Devanagari.
Meanwhile, the mercantile scripts of Punjab known as the Laṇḍā scripts were normally not used for literary purposes. Landa means alphabet "without tail", implying that the script did not have vowel symbols. In Punjab, there were at least ten different scripts classified as Laṇḍā, Mahajani being the most popular. The Laṇḍā scripts were used for household and trade purposes. Compared to the Laṇḍā, Sikh Gurus favored the use of Proto-Gurmukhī, because of the difficulties involved in pronouncing words without vowel signs.
The usage of Gurmukhī letters in the Guru Granth Sahib meant that the script developed its own orthographical rules. In the following epochs, Gurmukhī became the prime script applied for the literary writings of the Sikhs. The Singh Sabha Movement of the late 1800s, a movement to revitalize Sikh institutions which had declined during colonial rule after the fall of the Sikh Empire, also advocated for the usage of the Gurmukhi script for mass media, with print media publications and Punjabi-language newspapers established in the 1880s. Later in the 20th century, after the struggle of the Punjabi Suba movement, from the founding of modern India in the 1940s to the 1960s, the script was given the authority as the official script of the Punjab, India.
The prevalent view among Punjabi linguists is that as in the early stages the Gurmukhī letters were primarily used by the Guru's followers, Gurmukhs (literally, those who face, or follow, the Guru, as opposed to a Manmukh); the script thus came to be known as Gurmukhī, "the script of those guided by the Guru." Guru Angad is credited in the Sikh tradition with the creation and standardization of Gurmukhi script from earlier Śāradā-descended scripts native to the region. It is now the standard writing script for the Punjabi language in India. The original Sikh scriptures and most of the historic Sikh literature have been written in the Gurmukhi script.
Although the word Gurmukhī has been commonly translated as "from the Mouth of the Guru," the term used for the Punjabi script has somewhat different connotations. The opinion traditional scholars for this is that as the Sikh holy writings, before they were written down, were uttered by the Gurus, they came to be known as Gurmukhī or the "Utterance of the Guru". Consequently, the script that was used for scribing the utterance was also given the same name. The term that would mean "by the Guru's mouth" would be "Gurmū̃hī̃," which sounds considerably different but looks similar in Latin script.
The Gurmukhī alphabet contains thirty-five letters (akkhar, plural akkharā̃). The first three are distinct because they form the basis for vowels and are not consonants (vianjan) like the remaining letters are, and except for the second letter ɛṛa are never used on their own. See the section on vowels for further details.
The letters ਙ /ŋəŋːaː/ and ਞ /ɲəɲːaː / are not used in modern Gurmukhi. They cannot begin a syllable or be placed between two consonants, and the sounds they represent occur most often as allophones of [n] before specific consonant phonemes.
The pronunciation of ਵ can vary allophonically between /ʋ/ and /w/.
In addition to these, there are six consonants created by placing a dot (bindi) at the foot (pair) of the consonant (these are not present in Sri Guru Granth Sahib). These are used most often for loanwords, though not exclusively:
|ਸ਼||səsːaː pɛ:ɾᵊ bɪnd̪iː||ʃə|
|ਖ਼||kʰəkʰːaː pɛ:ɾᵊ bɪnd̪iː||xə|
|ਗ਼||gəgːaː pɛ:ɾᵊ bɪnd̪iː||ɣə|
|ਜ਼||d͡ʒəd͡ʒːaː pɛ:ɾᵊ bɪnd̪iː||zə|
|ਫ਼||pʰəpʰːaː pɛ:ɾᵊ bɪnd̪iː||fə|
|ਲ਼||ləlːaː pɛ:ɾᵊ bɪnd̪iː||ɭə|
|ləlːɑ pɛɾ bɪnd̪iː| was only recently added to the Gurmukhī alphabet. It was not a part of the traditional orthography, the phonological difference between 'l' and 'ɭ' was not reflected in the script. Some sources do not consider it a separate letter.
Three "subscript" letters, called pairī̃ akkhar, or "letters at the foot" are utilised in Gurmukhī: forms of ਹ(h), ਰ(r), and ਵ(v).
The subscript ਰ(r) and ਵ(v) are used to make consonant clusters and behave similarly; subjoined ਹ(h) raises tone.
|Subscript letter||Original form||Usage|
|੍ਰ||Subjoined /ɾ/ ਰ→ ੍ਰ||For example, the letter ਪ(p) with a regular ਰ(r) following it would yield the word ਪਰ /pəɾᵊ/ ("but"), but with a subjoined ਰ would appear as ਪ੍ਰ- (/prə-/), resulting in a consonant cluster, as in the word ਪ੍ਰਬੰਧਕ (/pɾəbə́nd̪əkᵊ/, "managerial, administrative"), as opposed to ਪਰਬੰਧਕ /pəɾᵊbə́nd̪əkᵊ/, the Punjabi form of the word used in natural speech in less formal settings (the Punjabi reflex for Sanskrit /pɾə-/ is /pəɾ-/) . This subscript letter is commonly used in Punjabi, not just for Sanskritized words, but also for personal names, some native dialectal words, loanwords from other languages like English, etc.|
|੍ਵ||Subjoined /ʋ/ ਵ→ ੍ਵ||Used occasionally in Gurbani (Sikh religious scriptures) but rare in modern usage, it is largely confined to creating the cluster /sʋə-/ in words borrowed from Sanskrit, the reflex of which in Punjabi is /sʊ-/,
e.g. Sanskrit ਸ੍ਵਪ੍ ਨ /s̪ʋɐ́p.n̪ɐ/→Punjabi ਸੁਪਨਾ /'sʊpᵊna:/, "dream," cf. Hindi-Urdu /səpna:/
For example, ਸ with a subjoined ਵ would produce ਸ੍ਵ (sʋə-) as in the Sanskrit word ਸ੍ਵਰਗ (/svəɾəgə/, "heaven"), but followed by a regular ਵ would yield ਸਵ- (səv-) as in the common word ਸਵਰਗ (/səʋəɾəgᵊ/, "heaven"), borrowed earlier from Sanskrit but subsequently changed. The natural Punjabi reflex, ਸੁਰਗ /sʊɾəgᵊ/, is also used in everyday speech.
|੍ਹ||Subjoined /ɦ/ ਹ→ ੍ਹ||The most common subscript, this character does not create consonant clusters, but serves as part of Punjabi's characteristic tone system, indicating a raised tone. It behaves the same way in its use as the regular ਹ(h) does in non-word-initial positions. The regular ਹ(h) is pronounced at the beginning of words but not in other positions, where it instead raises the tone. The difference in usage is that the regular ਹ is used after vowels and the subscript version when there is no vowel, and is attached to consonants.
For example, the regular ਹ is used after vowels as in ਮੀਹ (transliterated as mih, to show tonality, mī́, "rain"). The subjoined ਹ(h) acts the same way but instead is used under consonants: ਚ(ch) followed by ੜ(ṛ) yields ਚੜ (chəṛ), but not until the rising tone is introduced via a subscript ਹ(h) does it properly spell the word ਚੜ੍ਹ (chə́ṛ, "climb").
In addition to the three subjoined letters, there is a half-form of the letter Yayya, /j/ ਯ→੍ਯ, also used exclusively for Sanskrit borrowings, and even then rarely. Use of the subjoined /ʋ/ and conjunct /j/, already rare, is increasingly scarce in modern contexts.
To express vowels, Gurmukhī, as an abugida, makes use of obligatory diacritics called lagā mātarā (plural lagē matarē). Gurmukhī is similar to Brahmi scripts in that all consonants are followed by an inherent 'a' sound (unless at the end of a word when the 'a' is usually dropped). This inherent vowel sound can be changed by using dependent vowel signs which attach to a bearing consonant. In some cases, dependent vowel signs cannot be used – at the beginning of a word or syllable for instance – and so an independent vowel character is used instead.
Independent vowels are constructed using three bearer characters: Ura (ੳ), Aira (ਅ) and Iri (ੲ). With the exception of Aira (which represents the vowel 'a') they are never used without additional vowel signs.
|Vowel||Transcription||IPA||Closest English equivalent|
|ਅ||(none)||ਕ||Muktā||a||[ə]||like a in about|
|ਆ||ਾ||ਕਾ||Kannā||ā||[aː] , [äː]||like a in car|
|ਇ||ਿ||ਕਿ||Sihārī||i||[ɪ]||like i in it|
|ਈ||ੀ||ਕੀ||Bihārī||ī||[iː]||like i in litre|
|ਉ||ੁ||ਕੁ||Onkaṛ||u||[ʊ]||like u in put|
|ਊ||ੂ||ਕੂ||Dulenkaṛ||ū||[uː]||like u in spruce|
|ਏ||ੇ||ਕੇ||Lāvā̃||ē||[eː]||like e in Chile|
|ਐ||ੈ||ਕੈ||Dulāvā̃||e||[ɛː]||like e in sell|
|ਓ||ੋ||ਕੋ||Hōṛā||ō||[oː]||like o in more|
|ਔ||ੌ||ਕੌ||Kanoṛā||o||[ɔː]||like o in off|
Dotted circles represent the bearer consonant. Vowels are always pronounced after the consonant they are attached to. Thus, Sihari is always written to the left, but pronounced after the character on the right.
Ṭippī ( ੰ ) and bindī ( ਂ ) are used for producing a nasal phoneme depending on the following obstruent or a nasal vowel at the end of a word. All short vowels are nasalized using ṭippī and all long vowels are nasalized using bindī except for Dulenkar ( ੂ ), which uses ṭippi instead.
|Diacritic usage||Result||Examples (IPA)|
|Ṭippī on short vowel (/ə/, /ɪ/, /ʊ/), or long vowel /u:/, before non-nasal consonant||Adds nasal consonant at same place of articulation as following consonant
(/ns/, /n̪t̪/, /ɳɖ/, /mb/, /ŋg/, /nt͡ʃ/ etc.)
|ਹੰਸ /ɦənsᵊ/ "goose"|
ਅੰਤ /ən̪t̪ᵊ/ "end"
ਗੰਢ /gə́ɳɖᵊ/ "knot"
ਅੰਬ /əmbᵊ/ "mango"
ਸਿੰਗ /sɪŋgᵊ/ "horn, antler"
ਕੁੰਜੀ / kʊɲd͡ʒiː/ "key"
ਗੂੰਜ /guːɲd͡ʒᵊ/ "roar"
ਲੂੰਬੜੀ /luːmbᵊɽiː/ "fox"
|Bindī over long vowel (/a:/, /e:/, /i:/, /o:/, /u:/, /ɛ:/, /ɔː/)
before non-nasal consonant not including /h/
|Adds nasal consonant at same place of articulation as following consonant (/ns/, /n̪t̪/, /ɳɖ/, /mb/, /ŋg/, /nt͡ʃ/ etc.).
May also secondarily nasalize the vowel
|ਕਾਂਸੀ /kaːnsiː/ "bronze"|
ਕੇਂਦਰ /keːn̯d̯əɾᵊ/ "center, core, headquarters"
ਗੁਆਂਢੀ /gʊáːɳɖiː/ "neighbor"
ਚੌਂਕ /t͡ʃɔːŋkᵊ/ "crossroads, plaza"
ਜਾਂਚ /d͡ʒaːɲt͡ʃᵊ/ "trial, examination"
|Ṭippī over consonants followed by long vowel /u:/ (not stand-alone vowel ਊ),
at open syllable at end of word, or ending in /ɦ/
|Vowel nasalization||ਤੂੰ /t̪ũː/ "you"|
ਸਾਨੂੰ /saːnũː/ "to us"
ਮੂੰਹ /mũːɦ/ "mouth"
|Ṭippī on short vowel before nasal consonant (/n̪/ or /m/)||Gemination of nasal consonant.
Ṭippī is used to geminate nasal consonants instead of addhak
|ਇੰਨਾ /ɪn̪:a:/ "this much"|
ਕੰਮ /kəm:ᵊ/ "work"
|Bindī over long vowel (/a:/, /e:/, /i:/, /o:/, /u:/, /ɛ:/, /ɔː/),
at open syllable at end of word, or ending in /ɦ/
|Vowel nasalization||ਬਾਂਹ /bã́h/ "arm"|
ਮੈਂ /mɛ̃ː/ "I, me"
ਅਸੀਂ /əsĩː/ "we, us"
ਤੋਂ /t̪õː/ "from"
ਸਿਊਂ /sɪ.ũː/ "sew"
Older texts may follow other conventions.
The use of addhak ( ੱ ) (IPA: ['ə́d̪:əkᵊ]) indicates that the following consonant is geminate, meaning that the subsequent consonant is doubled or reinforced. Consonant length is distinctive in the Punjabi language and the use of this diacritic can change the meaning of a word, for example:
|Without addhak||Transliteration||Meaning||With addhak||Transliteration||Meaning|
|ਪਤਾ||patā||'aware' (of something)||ਪੱਤਾ||pattā||'leaf'|
The halant ( ੍ ) character is not used when writing Punjabi in Gurmukhī. However, it may occasionally be used in Sanskritised text or in dictionaries for extra phonetic information. When it is used, it represents the suppression of the inherent vowel.
The effect of this is shown below:
The visarg symbol (ਃ U+0A03) is used very occasionally in Gurmukhī. It can represent an abbreviation, as the period is used in English, though the period for abbreviation, like commas, exclamation points, and other Western punctuation, is freely used in modern Gurmukhi.
The udāt symbol (ੑ U+0A51) occurs in older texts and indicates a high tone.
|Hindu–Arabic numeral system|
|Positional systems by base|
|Non-standard positional numeral systems|
|List of numeral systems|
Gurmukhī has its own set of digits, used exactly as in other versions of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system. These are used extensively in older texts. In modern contexts, they are sometimes replaced by standard Western Arabic numerals.
|Numeral||Name, IPA||Simple Transliteration||Number|
The Unicode block for Gurmukhī is U+0A00–U+0A7F:
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
Panjab Digital Library has taken up digitization of all available manuscripts of Gurmukhī Script. The script has been in formal use since the 1500s, and a lot of literature written within this time period is still traceable. Panjab Digital Library has digitized over 5 million pages from different manuscripts and most of them are available online.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gurmukhi.|