This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Guahibo language

Native toColombia, Venezuela
RegionCasanare, eastern Meta, Vichada, Guaviare, Guainia states (Colombia)
Orinoco River (Venezuela)
Native speakers
34,000 (1998–2001)[1]
  • Guahibo
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
guh – Guahibo
gob – Playero (Pepojivi)

Guahibo, the native language of the Guahibo people, is a Guahiban language that is spoken by about 23,006 people in Colombia and additional 8,428 in Venezuela. There is a 40% rate of monolingualism, and a 45% literacy rate.



Guahibo has a unique and complex stress system with both primary and secondary stress. The stress system shows a sensitivity to syllable weight so that heavy syllables are always stressed. Both contrasting trochaic and iambic patterns are found on morphemes in nonfinal morphemes with more than two syllables:

Trochaic Iambic
mátacàbi "day"
tulíquisì "bead necklace"

The binary feet are parsed from left to right within each morpheme. Morphemes with an odd number of syllables leave the final syllable unstressed (and unparsed into feet):

Trochaic Iambic
wánali "crystal"
wayáfo "savannah"
pàlupáluma "rabbit"
culèmayúwa "species of turtle"

Morphemes that consist of two syllables and are also word-final are an exception to the above and only have the trochaic pattern:

Trochaic Iambic (with reversal)
náwa "grass fire"
púca "lake"

These morphemes alternate with an iambic pattern when placed in a nonfinal context. Thus náwa keeps its trochaic pattern with the addition of a single light syllable morpheme like -ta "in":

náwa + -tanáwata ('LL)L

However, an iambic word show its underlying iamb when it is followed by -ta:

púca + -tapucáta (L'L)L

Affixation generally does not affect the stress pattern of each morpheme.

Heavy syllables since they are required to be stressed disrupt perfect trochaic and iambic rhythms. However, morphemes with a sequence of at least two light syllables show contrasting stress patterns:

Trochaic Iambic
nónojì "hot peppers"
jútabài "motmot"

Primary Stress. Primary stress generally falls on the rightmost nonfinal foot. For example, the following word

(ˌLL)(ˈLL)L (pà.lu).(pá.lu).ma "rabbit"

has primary stress on the rightmost foot ( which is not word-final. However, the rightmost foot ( in

(LˈL)(LˌL) (tu.lí).(qui.sì) "bead necklace"

is word-final and cannot receive primary stress; the primary stress then falls on the next rightmost foot ( Placing a light syllable suffix -ta "with" after a four syllable root shows shifting of primary stress:

(LˈL)(LˌL) tsapánilù "species of turtle"
(LˌL)(LˈL)L tsapànilúta "with the turtle"

With the addition of the suffix, the root-final foot ( is no longer word-final and is subsequently permitted to accept primary stress.


Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive plain p t k
voiced b d
Fricative ɸ s x h
Trill r
Affricate t͡s
Nasal m n
Lateral l
Approximant w~β j

A /w/ sound can also range to a /β/ sound within words.

Front Central Back
Close i ɨ (ë) u
Mid e~ɛ (e) o
Open a~ə (a)

Vowels can also be nasalized as [ã ĩ ẽ õ ũ ɨ̃].[3]


  • Kondo, Riena. (1984). Notas sobre la fonología guahiba. Sistemas fonológicos de idiomas colombianos, 5, 205-211.
  • Kondo, Riena. (1985). Contribución al estudio de longitud vocálica y el acento en el idioma guahiba. Artículos en lingüística y campos afines, 13, 55-82.
  • Kondo, Riena. (1985). El guahibo hablado: Gramática pedagógica del guahibo (Vols. 1-2). Lomalinda, Colombia: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano.
  • Kondo, Riena. (1985). Long vowels and stress in Guahibo: From phonology to discourse. In Language data: Amerindian series (Vol. 9, 43-56). Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  • Kondo, Riena. (2001). Guahibo stress: Both trochaic and iambic. International Journal of American Linguistics, 67 (2), 136-166.
  • Kondo, Victor; & Kondo, Riena. (1967). Guahibo phonemes. In Phonemic systems of Colombian languages (pp. 89–98). Norman, OK: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  • Kondo, Victor; & Kondo, Riena. (1972). Fonemas del guahibo. Sistemas fonológicos de idiomas colombianos, 1, 93-102.
  • Mosonyi, Esteban Emilio. (1964). Contribución el estudio de la fonémica: Idioma Guajibo. Economía y Ciencias Sociales, 6, 93-103.
  • Queixalós, Francisco. (1985). Fonoloía Sikuani. Bogotá: Insituto Caro y Cuervo.


  1. ^ Guahibo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Playero (Pepojivi) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Guahibo–Playero". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b Kondo, Victor, Riena (1967). Phonemic Systems of Colombian Languages.
  4. ^ Kondo, Riena W. (1985). From Phonology to Discourse: Studies in six Colombian languages. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

External links