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Gu Yong

Gu Yong
顧雍
Imperial Chancellor (丞相)
In office
June or July 225 (June or July 225) – November or December 243 (November or December 243)
MonarchSun Quan
Preceded bySun Shao
Succeeded byLu Xun
Minister of Ceremonies (太常)
In office
225 (225) – June or July 225 (June or July 225)
MonarchSun Quan
Prefect of the Masters of Writing (尚書令)
In office
222 (222) – 225 (225)
MonarchSun Quan
Minister of Imperial Ancestral Ceremonies
(大理奉常)
In office
222 (222) – 225 (225)
MonarchSun Quan
Left Major (左司馬)
(under Sun Quan)
In office
? (?) – 222 (222)
Administrator of Kuaiji (會稽太守)
(acting)
In office
c. 200 (c. 200) – ? (?)
MonarchEmperor Xian of Han
Chief of Shangyu (上虞長)
In office
? (?) – c. 200 (c. 200)
MonarchEmperor Xian of Han
Chief of Qu'e (曲阿長)
In office
? (?) – ? (?)
MonarchEmperor Xian of Han
Chief of Lou (婁長)
In office
? (?) – ? (?)
MonarchEmperor Xian of Han
Chief of Hefei (合肥長)
In office
? (?) – ? (?)
MonarchEmperor Xian of Han
Personal details
Born168
Suzhou, Jiangsu
DiedNovember or December 243 (aged 75)[a]
Nanjing, Jiangsu
Spouse(s)Lu Kang's daughter
Relations
Children
OccupationOfficial
Courtesy nameYuantan (元歎)
Posthumous nameMarquis Su (肅侯)
PeerageMarquis of Liling (醴陵侯)

Gu Yong (168 – November or December 243),[a] courtesy name Yuantan, was a minister and the second Imperial Chancellor of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Born in the late Eastern Han dynasty in the Jiangdong region, Gu Yong studied under the tutelage of Cai Yong in his early years and earned high praise from his mentor. He started his career as a county chief and served in various counties throughout Jiangdong. Around the year 200, he came to serve the warlord Sun Quan, who controlled the Jiangdong territories, and performed well in office as an acting commandery administrator. After Sun Quan became the ruler of the independent state of Eastern Wu in 222, Gu Yong steadily rose through the ranks as a minister and ultimately became Imperial Chancellor. He held office for about 19 years from 225 until his death in 243.[2]

Background and early life

Gu Yong was born in Wu County, Wu Commandery, which is present-day Suzhou, Jiangsu,[3] towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty. His great-grandfather Gu Feng (顧奉) was a former Administrator (太守) of Yingchuan Commandery (潁川郡; around present-day Xuchang, Henan).[4][5] The Gu clan, which he was from, was one of the four most influential clans in Wu Commandery and also in the Jiangdong region at the time.[b]

Sometime in the 180s, when Cai Yong was living in Wu Commandery, Gu Yong met him and learnt calligraphy and music from him.[6] While studying under Cai Yong's tutelage, Gu Yong showed that he was not only diligent and focused in his studies, but also fast-learning and easily teachable. As a result, he earned high praise from Cai Yong, who told him: "You will definitely reach the pinnacle of success. I offer you a new name – the same as mine." Gu Yong thus changed his given name to "Yong" (雍) which was similar to Cai Yong's "Yong" (邕).[7] He also adopted "Yuantan" (元歎), which literally means "top praise", as his courtesy name to reflect the high praise he received from his mentor.[8][2]

The Administrator of Wu Commandery heard of Gu Yong's fame and recommended him as a talent to join the civil service. Shortly after he reached the age of adulthood, he started serving as the chief of Hefei County before he was reassigned to Lou County (婁縣; north of present-day Kunshan, Jiangsu), Qu'e County (曲阿縣; present-day Danyang, Jiangsu) and then Shangyu County (上虞縣; in present-day Shaoxing, Zhejiang).[9]

Early career under Sun Quan

When the Han central government granted the warlord Sun Quan the nominal appointment of Administrator of Kuaiji Commandery (around present-day Shaoxing, Zhejiang) around 200 or 201, Sun Quan in turn appointed Gu Yong as his deputy and the acting Administrator to help him govern Kuaiji Commandery because he was based in Wu Commandery at the time. During his tenure, Gu Yong pacified and integrated rebels and minorities under his jurisdiction and maintained peace. He earned much respect from his subordinates and the people alike for his good performance.[10] After holding office for many years, he was reassigned to be a Left Major (左司馬) under Sun Quan.[11][2]

In 222,[12] after Sun Quan became the King of Wu (吳王), he promoted Gu Yong to the positions of Minister of Imperial Ancestral Ceremonies (大理奉常) and Prefect of the Masters of Writing (尚書令) in his kingdom. He also enfeoffed Gu Yong as the Marquis of Yangsui District (陽遂鄉侯). As Gu Yong went straight back to his office after his conferment ceremony, his family did not know that he had been made a marquis so they were very surprised when they found out later.[13]

In 225, Gu Yong fetched his mother from his hometown in Wu County (吳縣; present-day Suzhou, Jiangsu) to live with him in Wuchang (武昌; present-day Ezhou, Hubei), the imperial capital of Eastern Wu. When she arrived, Sun Quan greeted and welcomed her in person, and later paid his respects to her in his imperial court in the presence of all his subjects. Sun Quan's heir apparent, Sun Deng, also greeted her.[14] In the same year, Gu Yong was reassigned to serve as Minister of Ceremonies (太常) and promoted from a district marquis to a county marquis under the title "Marquis of Liling" (醴陵侯). Later that year, he succeeded Sun Shao as the Imperial Chancellor of Eastern Wu and took charge of the imperial secretariat.[15][2]

As Imperial Chancellor of Eastern Wu

While holding office as Imperial Chancellor, Gu Yong managed the administration well. He assigned his subordinates to their respective appointments in a way which not only generally suited their preferences, but also allowed them to put their talents to good use. He also often went on inspection tours to assess local conditions and see if policy changes could be made to improve the people's lives. When he had new ideas, he secretly proposed them to Sun Quan. If his ideas were approved and implemented, he gave the credit to Sun Quan instead of claiming it for himself. If his ideas were rejected, he kept quiet and did not reveal anything. As a result, Sun Quan trusted and regarded him highly.[16]

A reticent person

Although Gu Yong always maintained a polite and respectful tone when he spoke up on issues in the imperial court, he was also known for standing by his principles and holding his ground when he had to.[17] On one occasion, when Sun Quan sought feedback from his subjects on policy matters, Zhang Zhao used the opportunity to ask for a review of the laws. He presented the findings he collected over a period of time, and pointed out that the laws were too strict and the penalties for crimes were too harsh.[18] Sun Quan did not respond to Zhang Zhao and instead turned to Gu Yong and asked him: "Sir, what do you think?" Gu Yong replied: "My observations coincide with what Zhang Zhao just described." Sun Quan thus approved Zhang Zhao's request for a review of the laws.[19]

Sun Quan often sent his palace secretaries to consult Gu Yong on policy matters. If Gu Yong approved, he had food and drinks prepared for the secretaries while they discussed and refined their ideas with him. If he disapproved, he appeared solemn and remained silent, and had no food and drinks prepared for them. The secretaries then scrapped their ideas and went back.[20] Sun Quan once said: "If Lord Gu is happy, that means he approves your idea. If he doesn't say anything, that means he thinks your idea can be improved. When that happens, I will think through again carefully." This quote showed that Sun Quan had much faith and respect for Gu Yong.[21]

Response to suggestions to launch border raids

Around the time, many Wu military officers in charge of defending the border along the southern banks of the Yangtze River wanted to gain credit for making contributions in battle, so they often wrote to the imperial court to suggest launching small raids on Wu's rival state Wei in the north.[22]

When Sun Quan sought Gu Yong's opinion on this, the latter said: "I heard that in warfare, one should refrain from trying to make petty gains. When these officers make such suggestions, they actually just want to claim some credit and glory for themselves, rather than for the greater benefit of our State. Your Majesty should ban them from making such suggestions. If a suggestion doesn't do much harm to the enemy and isn't sufficient for us to showcase our military prowess, then it shouldn't be taken into consideration." Sun Quan heeded his advice.[23]

Throughout his tenure as Imperial Chancellor, Gu Yong never shared his opinions on policy issues except when he spoke to Sun Quan in person.[24]

Lü Yi scandal

Around the 230s, Sun Quan appointed Lü Yi, whom he highly trusted, as the supervisor of the bureau in charge of auditing and reviewing the work of all officials in both the central and regional governments. Along with his colleague Qin Bo (秦博), Lü Yi freely abused his powers by picking on trivialities and falsely accusing numerous officials of committing serious offences. As a result, some officials were wrongfully arrested, imprisoned and tortured during interrogation.[25]

Gu Yong was one of Lü Yi's targets. The latter initially prepared to make a case against him for incompetence and ask Sun Quan to remove him from office. However, after an official Xie Gong (謝厷) pointed out that Pan Jun, the Minister of Ceremonies, would most likely become the next Imperial Chancellor if Gu Yong were to be removed from office, Lü Yi immediately dropped the case against Gu Yong because he knew that Pan Jun resented him and would take action against him if he became Imperial Chancellor.[26]

Lü Yi's abuses of power finally came to an end in 238[27] when Sun Quan learnt the truth about him and understood the gravity of the situation. After removing Lü Yi from office, Sun Quan had him imprisoned under the watch of the Ministry of Justice, and then ordered Gu Yong to conduct an investigation. While interrogating Lü Yi, Gu Yong maintained his composure and performed his job professionally. Before Lü Yi was escorted out, Gu Yong asked him, "Do you have anything else to say?" Lü Yi kowtowed and remained silent. When another official Huai Xu (懷叙) started scolding Lü Yi, Gu Yong sternly rebuked Huai Xu: "As government officials, we should follow the laws. Why must you do this?"[28]

The Eastern Jin dynasty historian Xu Zhong (徐衆) disapproved of Gu Yong's handling of Lü Yi's case. He pointed out that Lü Yi's actions had severely damaged the integrity of the Eastern Wu government and reduced people's trust in the government. Xu Zhong argued that Gu Yong should not even provide Lü Yi an opportunity to defend himself, because if Lü Yi pleaded not guilty and Gu Yong submitted his plea to Sun Quan, there was a risk that Sun Quan might believe that Lü Yi was innocent and therefore release him. If that happened, then, in Xu Zhong's opinion, the efforts of Sun Deng, Pan Jun, Lu Xun and the others who stood up to Lü Yi's abuses of power would have been in vain.[29] Xu Zhong also argued that Gu Yong should not reprimand Huai Xu for scolding Lü Yi because Lü Yi deserved it for his evil deeds.[30]

Lecturing his grandson on proper behaviour

On one occasion, one of Sun Quan's nieces married a younger maternal relative of Gu Yong. Gu Yong, along with his sons and grandson Gu Tan, attended the wedding. At the time, Gu Tan held an important position as Master of Writing in the Selection Bureau (選曹尚書; the equivalent of a present-day human resources director) of the government.[31] During the celebrations, he became drunk and started dancing wildly in an unrestrained manner in front of his grandfather, Sun Quan and the other guests. Gu Yong felt extremely embarrassed and upset with his grandson's behaviour but he did not say anything.[32]

The following day, Gu Yong summoned Gu Tan and lectured him: "Rulers see it as a virtue to endure hardship for the sake of fulfilling a greater purpose; subjects see it as their duty to be mindful, humble and respectful. In the past, although Xiao He and Wu Han made great contributions to the Han dynasty, the former became tongue-tied in front of Emperor Gao while the latter exercised caution when he spoke in front of Emperor Guangwu. What great contributions have you made to our State? You are in the Emperor's favour only because of your family background. How dare you lose control of yourself! Even though you weren't sober, your behaviour still shows that you aren't humble enough, and that you think you don't need to be respectful just because the Emperor favours you. It looks like one day you will be the one who brings disgrace to our family."[33]

Gu Yong then faced away as he lied down on his couch and rested. Gu Tan stood there for about two hours before his grandfather allowed him to leave.[34]

Death

After holding office as Imperial Chancellor for about 19 years, Gu Yong became critically ill towards the end of 243. When Sun Quan learnt about Gu Yong's condition, he sent his palace physician Zhao Quan (趙泉) to visit Gu Yong. He also commissioned Gu Yong's youngest son, Gu Ji (顧濟), as a Cavalry Commandant (騎都尉).[35] When Gu Yong heard about it, he sadly remarked: "(Zhao) Quan is an expert at assessing whether someone will live or die. I know for sure that I won't recover. That is why the Emperor wants me to see (Gu) Ji receiving his commission."[36] He died sometime between 29 November and 28 December that year[a] at the age of 76 (by East Asian age reckoning).[37]

Sun Quan donned mourning garments and personally attended Gu Yong's funeral. He also honoured Gu Yong with the posthumous title "Marquis Su" (肅侯), which means "serious marquis".[38]

Appraisal

Gu Yong was known for his abstinence from alcohol and for being a reserved and quiet person. He also maintained proper conduct and behaviour all the time, even in casual and informal settings. Sun Quan once said: "Although Gu Yong doesn't talk much, he is spot on when he speaks."[39] Whenever Gu Yong attended festive celebrations, he was usually a spoilsport because his mere presence often made his colleagues feel uneasy. They were worried that he would see them in their non-sober states, so they tended to exercise greater self-control while enjoying themselves. Sun Quan even once remarked: "When Gu Yong is around, no one will have fun."[40]

Chen Shou, who wrote Gu Yong's biography in the Sanguozhi, appraised Gu Yong as follows: "Gu Yong relied on his personal integrity and showed great wisdom and tolerance. That was why he was able to remain in a most prestigious position until his death."[41]

Family

Wife

Gu Yong married a daughter of Lu Kang, an official who served as the Administrator of Lujiang Commandery (廬江; around present-day Lu'an, Anhui) in the late Eastern Han dynasty. Through his marriage, he was a brother-in-law of Lu Ji, one of the 24 Filial Exemplars who served as an official under Sun Quan.[c]

Children and descendants

Gu Yong had three sons: Gu Shao (顧邵), Gu Yu (顧裕) and Gu Ji (顧濟).

Gu Shao died around the age of 30 while holding office as the Administrator of Yuzhang Commandery (豫章郡; around present-day Nanchang, Jiangxi). He married a niece of Sun Quan, and had two sons, Gu Tan (顧譚) and Gu Cheng (顧承),[43] who served as officials under Sun Quan but were eventually exiled to the remote Jiao Province.

Gu Yong's second son, Gu Yu, was also known as Gu Mu (顧穆). He served as the Administrator of Yidu Commandery (宜都郡; around present-day Yidu, Hubei) and was known for being in poor health. One of his sons, Gu Rong (顧榮), came to serve under the Jin dynasty after the fall of Eastern Wu and rose to high positions in the Jin government.[44][45] One of Gu Rong's nephews, Gu Yu (顧禺), was already well known in his youth. He served as a Regular Mounted Attendant (散騎侍郎) under the Jin dynasty but died early.[46]

Gu Yong's third and youngest son, Gu Ji, inherited his father's peerage as the Marquis of Liling (醴陵侯) because his eldest brother died early and his second brother was not in a good state of health to succeed their father. Gu Ji did not have any children so when he died, there was no one to inherit his peerage.[47] During the Yong'an era (258–264), the third Eastern Wu emperor Sun Xiu issued an imperial edict as follows: "The late Imperial Chancellor (Gu) Yong was virtuous and loyal. He played a supportive role to the State with his graciousness. I am deeply saddened to hear that he has no descendant to succeed him. I hereby order (Gu) Yong's second son, (Gu) Yu, to inherit the peerage of the Marquis of Liling, so as to honour (Gu Yong) for his past contributions."[48]

Other relatives

Other notable relatives of Gu Yong include his brother Gu Hui (顧徽) and relative Gu Ti (顧悌), who also served as officials in Eastern Wu.[49][50]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Sun Quan's biography in the Sanguozhi recorded that Gu Yong died in the 11th month of the 6th year of the Chiwu era of Sun Quan's reign.[1] This month corresponds to 29 November to 28 December 243 in the Gregorian calendar.
  2. ^ The four great clans of Wu Commandery were the Gu (顧), Lu (陸), Zhu (朱) and Zhang (張) clans. The four great clans of the Jiangdong region were the Gu (顧), Lu (陸), Yu (虞) and Wei (魏) clans. Some notable members from each clan were: Gu Yong, Gu Shao and Gu Tan of the Gu clan; Lu Xun, Lu Ji and Lu Kai of the Lu clan; Zhu Huan and Zhu Ju of the Zhu clan; Zhang Wen of the Zhang clan; Yu Fan of the Yu clan; and Wei Teng (魏騰) of the Wei clan.
  3. ^ The Sanguozhi recorded that Gu Shao, Gu Yong's eldest son, was equally famous as his maternal uncle Lu Ji in his youth.[42] If Lu Ji was a maternal uncle of Gu Shao, that means Gu Yong married Lu Ji's sister and hence Gu Yong's father-in-law was Lu Ji's father, Lu Kang.

References

  1. ^ ([赤烏六年]冬十一月,丞相顧雍卒。) Sanguozhi vol. 47.
  2. ^ a b c d de Crespigny (2007), pp. 274-275.
  3. ^ (顧雍字元歎,吳郡吳人也。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  4. ^ (吳錄曰:雍曾祖父奉,字季鴻,潁川太守。) Wu Lu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  5. ^ de Crespigny (2007), p. 273.
  6. ^ (蔡伯喈從朔方還,嘗避怨於吳,雍從學琴書。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  7. ^ (江表傳曰:雍從伯喈學,專一清靜,敏而易教。伯喈貴異之,謂曰:「卿必成致,今以吾名與卿。」故雍與伯喈同名,由此也。) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  8. ^ (吳錄曰:雍字元歎,言為蔡雍之所歎,因以為字焉。) Wu Lu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  9. ^ (州郡表薦,弱冠為合肥長,後轉在婁、曲阿、上虞,皆有治迹。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  10. ^ (孫權領會稽太守,不之郡,以雍為丞,行太守事,討除寇賊,郡界寧靜,吏民歸服。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  11. ^ (數年,入為左司馬。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  12. ^ Sima (1084), vol. 69.
  13. ^ (權為吳王,累遷大理奉常,領尚書令,封陽遂鄉侯,拜侯還寺,而家人不知,後聞乃驚。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  14. ^ (黃武四年,迎母於吳。旣至,權臨賀之,親拜其母於庭,公卿大臣畢會,後太子又往慶焉。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  15. ^ (是歲,改為太常,進封醴陵侯,代孫邵為丞相,平尚書事。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  16. ^ (其所選用文武將吏各隨能所任,心無適莫。時訪逮民閒,及政職所宜,輒密以聞。若見納用,則歸之於上,不用,終不宣泄。權以此重之。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  17. ^ (然於公朝有所陳及,辭色雖順而所執者正。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  18. ^ (權嘗咨問得失,張昭因陳聽采聞,頗以法令太稠,刑罰微重,宜有所蠲損。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  19. ^ (權默然,顧問雍曰:「君以為何如?」雍對曰:「臣之所聞,亦如昭所陳。」於是權乃議獄輕刑。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  20. ^ (江表傳曰:灌常令中書郎詣雍,有所咨訪。若合雍意,事可施行,即與相反覆,究而論之,為設酒食。如不合意,雍即正色改容,默然不言,無所施設,即退告。) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  21. ^ (權曰:「顧公歡恱,是事合宜也;其不言者,是事未平也,孤當重思之。」其見敬信如此。) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  22. ^ (江邊諸將,各欲立功自效,多陳便宜,有所掩襲。) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  23. ^ (權以訪雍,雍曰:「臣聞兵法戒於小利,此等所陳,欲邀功名而為其身,非為國也,陛下宜禁制。苟不足以曜威損敵,所不宜聽也。」權從之。) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  24. ^ (軍國得失,行事可不,自非面見,口未嘗言之。) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  25. ^ (乆之,呂壹、秦博為中書,典校諸官府及州郡文書。壹等因此漸作威福,遂造作榷酤障管之利,舉罪糾姧,纖介必聞,重以深案醜誣,毀短大臣,排陷無辜,雍等皆見舉白,用被譴讓。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  26. ^ (時校事呂壹操弄威柄,奏桉丞相顧雍、左將軍朱據等,皆見禁止。黃門侍郎謝厷語次問壹:「顧公事何如?」壹荅:「不能佳。」厷又問:「若此公免退,誰當代之?」壹未荅厷,厷曰:「得無潘太常得之乎?」壹良乆曰:「君語近之也。」厷謂曰:「潘太常常切齒於君,但道遠無因耳。今日代顧公,恐明日便擊君矣。」壹大懼,遂解散雍事。) Sanguozhi vol. 61.
  27. ^ Sima (1084), vol. 74.
  28. ^ (後壹姦罪發露,收繫廷尉。雍往斷獄,壹以囚見,雍和顏色,問其辭狀,臨出,又謂壹曰:「君意得無欲有所道?」壹叩頭無言。時尚書郎懷叙面詈辱壹,雍責叙曰:「官有正法,何至於此!」) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  29. ^ (徐衆評曰:雍不以呂壹見毀之故,而和顏恱色,誠長者矣。然開引其意,問所欲道,此非也。壹姦險亂法,毀傷忠賢,吳國寒心,自太子登、陸遜已下,切諫不能得,是以潘濬欲因會同手劒之,以除國患,疾惡忠主,義形於色,而今乃發起令言。若壹稱枉邪,不申理,則非錄獄本旨;若承辭而奏之,吳主儻以敬丞相所言,而復原宥,伯言、承明不當悲慨哉!) Xu Zhong's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  30. ^ (懷叙本無私恨,無所為嫌,故詈辱之,疾惡意耳,惡不仁者,其為仁也。季武子死,曾點倚其門而歌;子晳創發,子產催令自裁。以此言之,雍不當責懷叙也。) Xu Zhong's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  31. ^ (江表傳曰:權嫁從女,女顧氏甥,故請雍父子及孫譚,譚時為選曹尚書,見任貴重。) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  32. ^ (是日,權極歡。譚醉酒,三起舞,舞不知止。雍內怒之。) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  33. ^ (明日,召譚,訶責之曰:「君王以含垢為德,臣下以恭謹為節。昔蕭何、吳漢並有大功,何每見高帝,似不能言;漢奉光武,亦信恪勤。汝之於國,寧有汗馬之勞,可書之事邪?但階門戶之資,遂見寵任耳,何有舞不復知止?雖為酒後,亦由恃恩忘敬,謙虛不足。損吾家者必爾也。」) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  34. ^ (因背向壁卧,譚立過一時,乃見遣。) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  35. ^ (初疾微時,權令醫趙泉視之,拜其少子濟為騎都尉。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  36. ^ (雍聞,悲曰:「泉善別死生,吾必不起,故上欲及吾目見濟拜也。」) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  37. ^ (雍為相十九年,年七十六,赤烏六年卒。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  38. ^ (權素服臨弔,謚曰肅侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  39. ^ (雍為人不飲酒,寡言語,舉動時當。權嘗歎曰:「顧君不言,言必有中。」) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  40. ^ (至飲宴歡樂之際,左右恐有酒失而雍必見之,是以不敢肆情。權亦曰:「顧公在坐,使人不樂。」其見憚如此。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  41. ^ (評曰: ... 顧雍依杖素業,而將之智局,故能究極榮位。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  42. ^ ([顧]邵字孝則, ... 少與舅陸績齊名, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  43. ^ ([顧邵]年二十七,起家為豫章太守。 ... 在郡五年,卒官,子譚、承云。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  44. ^ (吳錄曰:裕一名穆,終宜都太守。裕子榮。) Wu Lu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  45. ^ (晉書曰:榮字彥先,為東南名士,仕吳為黃門郎,在晉歷顯位。元帝初鎮江東,以榮為軍司馬,禮遇甚重。卒,表贈侍中、驃騎將軍、儀同三司。) Jin Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  46. ^ (榮兄子禺,字孟著,少有名望,為散騎侍郎,早卒。) Jin Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  47. ^ (長子邵早卒,次子裕有篤疾,少子濟嗣,無後,絕。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  48. ^ (永安元年,詔曰:「故丞相雍,至德忠賢,輔國以禮,而侯統廢絕,朕甚愍之。其以雍次子裕襲爵為醴陵侯,以明著舊勳。」) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  49. ^ (吳書曰:雍母弟徽,字子歎, ...) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  50. ^ (雍族人悌,字子通, ...) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  • Chen, Shou (3rd century). Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi).
  • de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms 23-220 AD. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004156050.
  • Pei, Songzhi (5th century). Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi zhu).
  • Sima, Guang (1084). Zizhi Tongjian.