GNAS Identifiers Aliases , AHO, C20orf45, GNAS1, GPSA, GSA, GSP, NESP, POH, SCG6, SgVI, GNAS complex locus, PITA3 GNAS External IDs OMIM: 139320 MGI: 95777 HomoloGene: 55534 GeneCards: GNAS
Gene location (Mouse) Chr. Chromosome 2 (mouse)  Band 2 H4|2 97.89 cM Start 174,284,320 bp  End 174,346,744 bp  Orthologs Species Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl UniProt RefSeq (mRNA) RefSeq (protein) Location (UCSC) Chr 20: 58.84 – 58.91 Mb Chr 2: 174.28 – 174.35 Mb PubMed search   Wikidata
G ( s alpha subunit G, αs G) is a subunit of the sα heterotrimeric G protein G that s stimulates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase. G sα is a GTPase that functions as a cellular signaling protein.
G sα is the founding member of one of the four families of heterotrimeric G proteins, defined by the alpha subunits they contain: the G αs family, G, αi/G αo family G, and αq family G. α12/G α13 family The Gs-family has only two members: the other member is G  olf, named for its predominant expression in the olfactory system. In humans, G sα is encoded by the GNAS complex locus, while G olfα is encoded by the GNAL gene.
The general function of G
s is to activate intracellular signaling pathways in response to activation of cell surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs function as part of a three-component system of receptor-transducer-effector.  The transducer in this system is a  heterotrimeric G protein, composed of three subunits: a Gα protein such as G sα, and a complex of two tightly linked proteins called Gβ and Gγ in a Gβγ complex.  When not stimulated by a receptor, Gα is bound to  GDP and to Gβγ to form the inactive G protein trimer.  When the receptor binds an activating ligand outside the cell (such as a  hormone or neurotransmitter), the activated receptor acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor to promote GDP release from and GTP binding to Gα, which drives dissociation of GTP-bound Gα from Gβγ.  In particular, GTP-bound, activated G  sα binds to adenylyl cyclase to produce the second messenger cAMP, which in turn activates the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (also called Protein Kinase A or PKA).  Cellular effects of G  sα acting through PKA are described here.
Although each GTP-bound G
sα can activate only one adenylyl cyclase enzyme, amplification of the signal occurs because one receptor can activate multiple copies of G s while that receptor remains bound to its activating agonist, and each G sα-bound adenylyl cyclase enzyme can generate substantial cAMP to activate many copies of PKA.
The G protein-coupled receptors that couple to the G
s family proteins include:
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GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000087460 - Ensembl, May 2017
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GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000027523 - Ensembl, May 2017
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