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A solution of a carbonyl compound is added to a Grignard reagent. (See
Grignard reaction (pronounced /ɡriɲar/) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl- magnesium halides ( Grignard reagent) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.  This reaction is important for the formation of  carbon–carbon bonds.  The reaction of an organic halide with magnesium is  not a Grignard reaction, but provides a Grignard reagent.
Grignard reactions and reagents were discovered by and are named after the French chemist
François Auguste Victor Grignard ( University of Nancy, France), who published it in 1900 and was awarded the 1912 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this work.
The carbon attached to magnesium functions as a
nucleophile, attacking the electrophilic carbon atom that is present within the polar bond of a carbonyl group. The addition of the Grignard reagent to the carbonyl typically proceeds through a six-membered ring transition state.
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