This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Green Party of the United States

Green Party of the United States
Governing bodyGreen National Committee
FoundedApril 2001; 18 years ago (2001-04)
Split fromGreens/Green Party USA
Preceded byAssociation of State Green Parties
Headquarters6411 Orchard Avenue, Suite 101, Takoma Park, Maryland 20912
NewspaperGreen Pages
Youth wingYoung Ecosocialists
Women's wingNational Women's Caucus
LGBT wingLavender Greens
Latinx wingLatinx Caucus
Black wingBlack Caucus
Membership~250,000[1]
Ideology
Political positionLeft-wing[4][5]
International affiliationGlobal Greens
Continental affiliationFederation of the Green Parties of the Americas
Colors     Green
Seats in the Senate
0 / 100
Seats in the House
0 / 435
Governorships
0 / 50
State Upper House Seats
0 / 1,972
State Lower House Seats
0 / 5,411
Territorial Governorships
0 / 6
Territorial Upper Chamber Seats
0 / 97
Territorial Lower Chamber Seats
0 / 91
Other elected offices128 (Nov. 2019)[6]
Appointed offices+6 (Nov. 2019)[7]
Website
gp.org

The Green Party of the United States (GPUS) is a federation of Green state political parties in the United States.[8] The party promotes green politics, specifically ecology; nonviolence; social justice; participatory, grassroots democracy; gender equality; LGBT rights; anti-war and anti-racism. On the political spectrum, the party is generally seen as left-wing.[3]

The GPUS was founded in 2001 as the Association of State Green Parties (ASGP) split from the Greens/Green Party USA (G/GPUSA). After its founding, the GPUS soon became the primary national green organization in the country, eclipsing the G/GPUSA, which was formed in 1991 out of the Green Committees of Correspondence (CoC), a collection of local green groups active since 1984.[9] The ASGP, which formed in 1996[10], had increasingly distanced itself from the G/GPUSA in the late 1990s.[11]

The Greens gained widespread public attention during the 2000 presidential election, when the ticket composed of Ralph Nader and Winona LaDuke won 2.7% of the popular vote. Nader was vilified by many Democrats, who accused him of spoiling the election for Al Gore, the Democratic candidate.[12] Nader maintains that he was not a spoiler in the 2000 election.[13]

History

Early years

The political movement that began in 1985 as the decentralized Committees of Correspondence[14] evolved into a more centralized structure by 1990, opening a national clearinghouse and forming governing bodies, bylaws and a platform as the Green Committees of Correspondence (GCoC) and by 1990 simply The Greens. The organization conducted grassroots organizing efforts, educational activities and electoral campaigns.

Internal divisions arose between members who saw electoral politics as ultimately corrupting and supported the notion of an "anti-party party" formed by Petra Kelly and other leaders of the Greens in Germany[15] vs. those who saw electoral strategies as a crucial engine of social change. A struggle for the direction of the organization culminated a "compromise agreement", ratified in 1990 at the Greens National Congress in Elkins, West Virginia and in which both strategies would be accommodated within the same 527 political organization renamed the Greens/Green Party USA (G/GPUSA). It was recognized by the FEC as a national political party in 1991.

The compromise agreement subsequently collapsed and two Green party organizations have co-existed in the United States since. The Green Politics Network was organized in 1990 and the National Association of Statewide Green Parties formed by 1994. Divisions between those pressing to break onto the national political stage and those aiming to grow roots at the local level continued to widen during the 1990s. The Association of State Green Parties (ASGP) encouraged and backed Nader's presidential runs in 1996 and 2000. By 2001, the push to separate electoral activity from the G/GPUSA issue-based organizing led to the Boston Proposal and subsequent rise of the Green Party of the United States. The G/GPUSA lost most of its affiliates in the following months and dropped its FEC national party status in 2005.

Ideology

The GPUS follows the ideals of green politics, which are based on the Four Pillars, namely ecological wisdom, social justice, grassroots democracy and nonviolence.[16]

The Ten Key Values, which expand upon the Four Pillars, are as follows:[2]

  1. Grassroots democracy
  2. Social justice and equal opportunity
  3. Ecological wisdom
  4. Nonviolence
  5. Decentralization
  6. Community-based economics
  7. Feminism and gender equality
  8. Respect for diversity
  9. Personal and global responsibility
  10. Future focus and sustainability

Peter Camejo was quoted in 2002 as claiming that he was a watermelon—green on the outside, but red on the inside.[17] In January 2004, he initiated the Avocado Declaration, which compares Greens to avocados. "An avocado is Green on the outside and Green on the inside".[18] The Declaration goes on to explain that Greens have a vital role in bringing democracy to the otherwise undemocratic two party system of the United States; that the Greens have a unique and independent identity as a third party, which cannot be subsumed into the Republican or Democratic parties; and that they cannot be dismissed by Republican or Democratic critics by implying that they are merely socialists or communists.

The Green Party does not accept donations from corporations, political action committees (PACs), 527(c) organizations or soft money. The party's platforms and rhetoric harshly criticize corporate influence and control over government, media and society at large.[19]

Political positions

Economic issues

Healthcare

The party supports the implementation of a single-payer healthcare system. They have also called for contraception and abortion procedures to be available on demand.[20]

Education

The Green Party calls for providing tuition-free college at public universities and vocational schools, increasing funding for after-school and daycare programs, cancelling all student loan debt, and repealing the No Child Left Behind Act. They are strongly against the dissolution of public schools and the privatization of education.[21]

Green New Deal

In 2006 the Green Party developed a Green New Deal (unrelated to the Democratic version created by Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez) that would serve as a transitional plan to an one hundred percent clean, renewable energy by 2030 utilizing a carbon tax, jobs guarantee, tuition-free college, single-payer healthcare and a focus on using public programs.[22][23][24]

Social issues

Criminal justice

The party favors the abolition of the death penalty, repeal of three-strikes laws, banning of private prisons, legalization of marijuana, and decriminalization of other drugs.[25]

Racial justice

The Green Party advocates for "complete and full" reparations to the African American community, as well the removal of the Confederate flag from all government buildings.[26]

LGBT+ rights

The party supports same-sex marriage, the right of access to medical and surgical treatment for sex reassignment, and withdrawing foreign aid to countries with poor LGBT+ rights records.[26]

Foreign policy

The Green Party calls on the United States to join the International Criminal Court, and sign the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and Non-Proliferation Treaty. Additionally, it supports cutting the defense budget in half as well as prohibiting all arms sales to foreign countries.[27]

Iran

Greens support the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action.[28]

Israel/Palestine

The Green Party advocates for the right of return and cutting all U.S. aid to Israel. It has also expressed support for the international Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) movement.[29]

Structure and composition

Committees

The Green Party has two national committees recognized by the Federal Election Commission (FEC):

Green National Committee

The GNC is composed of delegates elected by affiliated state parties. The state parties also appoint delegates to serve on the various standing committees of the GNC. The National Committee elects a steering committee of seven co-chairs, a secretary and a treasurer to oversee daily operations. The National Committee performs most of its business online, but it also holds an annual national meeting to conduct business in person.

Caucuses

Five Identity Caucuses have achieved representation on the GNC:

Other caucuses have worked toward formal recognition by the GNC:

Geographic distribution

The Green Party has its strongest popular support on the Pacific Coast, Upper Great Lakes, and Northeast, as reflected in the geographical distribution of Green candidates elected.[40] As of June 2007, Californians have elected 55 of the 226 office-holding Greens nationwide. Other states with high numbers of Green elected officials include Pennsylvania (31), Wisconsin (23), Massachusetts (18) and Maine (17). Maine has the highest per capita number of Green elected officials in the country and the largest Green registration percentage with more than 29,273 Greens comprising 2.95% of the electorate as of November 2006.[41] Madison, Wisconsin is the city with the most Green elected officials (8), followed by Portland, Maine (7).

The 2016 presidential campaign of Jill Stein got substantive support from counties and precincts with a high percentage of Native American population. For instance, in Sioux County (North Dakota, 84,1% Native American), Stein gained her best county-wide result: 10.4% of the votes. In Rolette County (also North Dakota, 77% Native American), she got 4.7% of the votes. Other majority Native American counties where Stein did above state average are Menominee (WI), Roosevelt (MT) and several precincts in Alaska.[42][43]

In 2005, the Green Party had 305,000 registered members in states allowing party registration and tens of thousands of members and contributors in the rest of the country.[44] One challenge that the Green Party (as well as other third parties) faces is the difficulty of overcoming ballot access laws in many states, yet the Green Party has active state parties in all but a few states.

Office holders

Musician Jello Biafra ran for several offices with the Green Party, including for President in 2000
Malik Rahim, former Black Panther Party activist, ran for Congress in 2008 with the Green Party
Psychiatrist Joel Kovel ran for the Green Party's presidential nomination in 2000
2012 and 2016 Green Party presidential candidate Jill Stein

As of October 2016, 143 officeholders in the United States were affiliated with the Green Party, the majority of them in California, several in Illinois, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, with five or fewer in ten other states.[45] These included one mayor and one deputy mayor and fourteen county or city commissioners (or equivalent). The remainder were members of school boards, clerks and other local administrative bodies and positions.[45]

Several Green Party members have been elected to state-level office, though not always as affiliates of the party. John Eder was elected to the Maine House of Representatives, re-elected in 2004, but defeated in 2006. Audie Bock was elected to the California State Assembly in 1999, but switched her registration to independent seven months later[46] running as such in the 2000 election.[47] Richard Carroll was elected to the Arkansas House of Representatives in 2008, but switched parties to become a Democrat five months after his election.[48] Fred Smith was elected to the Arkansas House of Representatives in 2012,[49] but re-registered as a Democrat in 2014.[50] In 2010, former Green Party leader Ben Chipman was elected to the Maine House of Representatives as an unenrolled candidate and was re-elected in 2012 and 2014. He has since registered as a Democrat, and is serving in the Maine Senate.[51] [52]

Gayle McLaughlin was twice elected mayor of Richmond, California, defeating two Democrats in 2006[53] and then reelected in 2010; and elected to City Council in 2014 after completing her second term as mayor.[54] With a population of over 100,000 people, it was the largest American city with a Green mayor. Fairfax, California; Arcata, California; Sebastopol, California; and New Paltz, New York are the only towns in the United States to have had a Green Party majority in their town councils. Twin Ridges Elementary in Nevada County, California held the first Green Party majority school board in the United States.[55]

On September 21, 2017, Ralph Chapman, a member of the Maine House of Representatives, switched his party registration from unaffiliated to Green, providing the Green Party with their first state-level representative since 2014.[56] Henry John Bear became a member of the Green Party in the same year as Chapman, giving the Maine Green Independent Party and GPUS its second currently-serving state representative, though Bear is a nonvoting tribal member of the Maine House of Representatives.

Though several Green congressional candidates have topped 20%, no nominee of the Green Party has been elected to office in the federal government. In 2016, Mark Salazar set a new record for a Green Party nominee for Congress. Running in the Arizona 8th district against incumbent Republican Congressman Trent Franks, Salazar received 93,954 votes or 31.43%.[57]

List of national conventions and annual meetings

The Green National Convention is scheduled in presidential election years and the Annual National Meeting is scheduled in other years. The Green National Committee conducts business online between these in-person meetings.

Presidential ballot access

History of Green Party ballot access by state or territory
1996[a][58][59] 2000[60][61] 2004[62][63] 2008[64][65] 2012[66][67] 2016[68][69] 2020[70][71]
States & D.C. 22 (14) 44 (4) 28 (14) 33 (10) 37 (6) 45 (3) 21 +
Electoral votes 239 (200)[b] 481 (32) 294 (201)[c] 413 (68) 439 (47)[d] 480 (42) 279 +
Alabama Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot On ballot TBD
Alaska On ballot Not on ballot On ballot TBD
Arizona (write-in) On ballot (write-in) On ballot TBD
Arkansas On ballot TBD
California On ballot
Colorado On ballot
Connecticut On ballot (write-in) On ballot
Delaware (write-in) On ballot
District of Columbia On ballot
Florida On ballot
Georgia Not on ballot (write-in) TBD
Hawaii On ballot
Idaho Not on ballot (write-in) On ballot TBD
Illinois (write-in) On ballot (write-in) On ballot TBD
Indiana (write-in) TBD
Iowa On ballot TBD
Kansas (write-in) On ballot (write-in) On ballot[75] TBD
Kentucky (write-in) On ballot Not on ballot On ballot TBD
Louisiana On ballot
Maine On ballot
Maryland (write-in) On ballot TBD
Massachusetts (write-in) On ballot
Michigan (write-in) On ballot
Minnesota On ballot TBD
Mississippi Not on ballot On ballot
Missouri (write-in) On ballot Not on ballot (write-in) Not on ballot On ballot[76]
Montana Not on ballot On ballot (write-in) Not on ballot On ballot TBD
Nebraska Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot On ballot TBD
Nevada On ballot Not on ballot TBD
New Hampshire Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot (write-in) On ballot TBD
New Jersey On ballot TBD
New Mexico On ballot
New York On ballot (write-in) On ballot
North Carolina (write-in) Not on ballot (write-in) Not on ballot (write-in) On ballot
North Dakota Not on ballot On ballot Not on ballot On ballot TBD
Ohio (write-in) On ballot (write-in) On ballot TBD
Oklahoma Not on ballot TBD
Oregon On ballot
Pennsylvania (write-in) On ballot Not on ballot On ballot TBD
Rhode Island On ballot[77] TBD
South Carolina Not on ballot On ballot
South Dakota Not on ballot TBD
Tennessee Not on ballot On ballot (write-in) On ballot TBD
Texas (write-in) On ballot (write-in) On ballot
Utah On ballot (write-in) On ballot
Vermont On ballot Not on ballot (write-in) On ballot TBD
Virginia Not on ballot On ballot (write-in) On ballot TBD
Washington On ballot TBD
West Virginia Not on ballot On ballot (write-in) On ballot
Wisconsin On ballot TBD
Wyoming Not on ballot (write-in) Not on ballot On ballot TBD
  1. ^ 1996 and 2000 presidential campaigns were prior to formation of GPUS but campaign was endorsed by existing state Green Parties and predecessors ASGP and G/GPUSA.
  2. ^ Electoral vote allocation for 1996 and 2000 based on 1990 census.[72]
  3. ^ Electoral vote allocation for 2004 and 2008 based on 2000 census.[73]
  4. ^ Electoral vote allocation for 2012, 2016 and 2020 based on 2010 census.[74]

Electoral results

President and Vice President

Year Presidential nominee Home state Previous positions Vice presidential nominee Home state Previous positions Votes Notes
1996 Naderspeak (cropped).JPG
Ralph Nader
(campaign)
 Connecticut Lawyer, activist Reception (4099192018) (cropped).jpg
Winona LaDuke
 Minnesota Environmentalist 685,297 (0.7%)
0 EV
[a][b]
2000 Naderspeak (cropped).JPG
Ralph Nader
(campaign)
 Connecticut Nominee for President of the United States (1996) Reception (4099192018) (cropped).jpg
Winona LaDuke
 Minnesota Nominee for Vice President of the United States (1996) 2,882,955 (2.7%)
0 EV
2004 David Cobb at Oct 2016 Berkeley rally for Jill Stein - 3 (cropped3).jpg
David Cobb
(campaign)
 Texas Lawyer
Nominee for Attorney General of Texas
(2002)
Pat LaMarche  Maine Nominee for Governor of Maine
(1998)
119,859 (0.1%)
0 EV
[c]
2008 Cynthia McKinney.jpg
Cynthia McKinney
(campaign)
 Georgia Member of the Georgia House of Representatives
(1989–1993)
Member of the United States House of Representatives from Georgia's 11th district
(1993–1997)
Member of the United States House of Representatives from Georgia's 4th district
(1997–2003; 2005–2007)
NLN Rosa Clemente.jpg
Rosa Clemente
 New York Community organizer 161,797 (0.1%)
0 EV
[d]
2012 Jill Stein by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Jill Stein
(campaign)
 Massachusetts Nominee for Governor of Massachusetts
(2002; 2010)
Nominee for Massachusetts's 9th Middlesex State House of Representatives district
(2004)
Member of the Lexington Town Meeting (2005–2011)
Nominee for Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth
(2006)
Cheri Honkala.jpg
Cheri Honkala
 Pennsylvania Activist
Nominee for Sheriff of Philadelphia
(2011)
469,627 (0.4%)
0 EV
2016 Jill Stein by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Jill Stein
(campaign)
 Massachusetts (see above for previous positions)
Nominee for President of the United States
(2012)
Ajamu Baraka at Oct 2016 Berkeley rally for Jill Stein - 4 (cropped) (cropped).jpg
Ajamu Baraka
 Illinois Activist 1,457,216 (1.1%)
0 EV
[e]
  1. ^ Nader was not formally nominated by the party itself, but he did receive the endorsement of a large number of state parties and is considered as the de facto Green Party candidate.
  2. ^ In Iowa and Vermont, Anne Goeke was Nader's running mate, in New Jersey it was Madelyn Hoffman and in New York it was Muriel Tillinghast.
  3. ^ Ralph Nader and Peter Camejo, a Green, ran an independent campaign and received 0.4% of the vote; however, they were not affiliated with the Green Party.
  4. ^ Ralph Nader and Matt Gonzalez, a Green, ran an independent campaign and received 0.6% of the vote, but they were not affiliated with the Green Party.
  5. ^ While Stein and Baraka did not receive any electoral votes, Green Winona LaDuke received one vote for Vice President from a Washington faithless elector; the presidential vote went to Faith Spotted Eagle, a Democrat.

Congress

House of Representatives

Election year No. of overall votes % of overall vote No. of overall seats won +/-
1992 134,072 0.14
0 / 435
1994 52,096 0.07
0 / 435
1996 42,510 0.05
0 / 435
1998 70,932 0.11
0 / 435
2000 260,087 0.26
0 / 435
2002 297,187 0.40
0 / 435
2004 344,549 0.30
0 / 435
2006 243,391 0.29
0 / 435
2008 580,263 0.47
0 / 435
2010 252,688 0.29
0 / 435
2012 372,996 0.30
0 / 435
2014 246,567 0.30
0 / 435
2016 515,263[78] 0.42?
0 / 435
2018 247,021 0.22
0 / 435

Senate

Election year No. of overall votes % of overall vote No. of overall seats won +/-
2000 685,289 0.90
0 / 34
2002 94,702 0.20
0 / 34
2004 157,671 0.20
0 / 34
2006 295,935 0.50
0 / 33
2008 427,427 0.70
0 / 33
2010 516,517 0.80
0 / 37
2012 212,103 0.20
0 / 33
2014 152,555 0.32
0 / 33
2016 695,604[79] 0.97?
0 / 33
2018 177,498 0.21
0 / 33

Fundraising and position on Super PACs

In the early decades of Green organizing in the United States, the prevailing American system of money-dominated elections was universally rejected by Greens, so that some Greens were reluctant to have Greens participate in the election system at all because they deemed the campaign finance system inherently corrupt. Other Greens felt strongly that the Green Party should develop in the electoral arena and many of these Greens felt that adopting an alternative model of campaign finance, emphasizing self-imposed contribution limits, would present a wholesome and attractive contrast to the odious campaign finance practices of the money-dominated major parties.

Over the years, some state Green parties have come to place less emphasis on the principle of self-imposed limits than they did in the past. Nevertheless, it is safe to say that Green Party fundraising (for candidates' campaigns and for the party itself) still tends to rely on relatively small contributions and that Greens generally decry not only the rise of the Super PACs, but also the big-money system, which some Greens criticize as plutocracy.

Some Greens feel that the Green Party's position should be simply to follow the laws and regulations of campaign finance.[80] Other Greens argue that it would injure the Green Party not to practice a principled stand against the anti-democratic influence of money in the political process. Candidates for office, like Jill Stein, the 2012 and 2016 Green Party nominee for the President of the United States, typically rely on smaller donations to fund their campaigns.[81]

State and territorial parties

The following is a list of accredited state parties which comprise the Green Party of the United States.[82]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Register Green". Green Party US. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Ten Key Values". Green Party US. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c "Green Party of the United States – National Committee Voting – Proposal Details". Green Party US. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  4. ^ "Presidential Hopefuls Meet in Third Party Debate". PBS. October 25, 2012. Archived from the original on January 15, 2017. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  5. ^ Resnikoff, Ned (June 23, 2015). "Green Party's Jill Stein Running for President". Al Jazeera. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  6. ^ "Green Officeholders (November 5, 2019)". Green Party of the United States. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
  7. ^ "Appointed Officials". Green Party of the United States. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
  8. ^ "Green Party". ballotpedia.org. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  9. ^ "Advisory Opinion 2001–13" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. November 8, 2001. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  10. ^ "AOR 2011–13: Advisory Opinion Request (AOR) Seeking Recognition of the Coordinating Committee of the Green Party of the United States as the National Committee of the Green Party" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. August 9, 2001. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  11. ^ "Coordinating Committee for the Greens/Green Party USA National Committee Governing Body of the "Green Party", Greens/Green Party USA" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. September 7, 2001. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  12. ^ Dao, James (November 9, 2000). "The 2000 Elections: The Green Party; Angry Democrats, Fearing Nader Cost Them Presidential Race, Threaten to Retaliate". The New York Times. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  13. ^ Nader, Ralph (June 2, 2016). "I was not a 'spoiler' in 2000. Jill Stein doesn't deserve that insulting label, either". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  14. ^ Marks, Jodean (1997). "A Historical Look at Green Structure: 1984 to 1992". Synthesis/Regeneration. 14. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  15. ^ Kelly, Petra (2002). "On Morality and Human Dignity (excerpts)". Synthesis/Regeneration. 28. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  16. ^ "The Four Pillars". Green Party US. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  17. ^ Herel, Suzanne. "Multimedia (image)". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on November 15, 2005. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  18. ^ "The Avocado Declaration, a statement by Peter Camejo and the Avocado Education Project". cagreens.org. January 1, 2004. Archived from the original on June 13, 2018. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  19. ^ "Why Register as a Green – Green Party Website". Green Party. Archived from the original on November 12, 2014. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
  20. ^ "II. Social Justice – Health Care". Green Party US. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  21. ^ "II. Social Justice – Economic Justice". Green Party US. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  22. ^ Stewart, Andrew (November 29, 2018). "Sorry Democrats, the Green Party Came Up With the Green New Deal!". CounterPunch. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  23. ^ Atkin, Emily (February 22, 2019). "The Democrats Stole the Green Party's Best Idea". The New Republic. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  24. ^ Schroeder, Robert (February 12, 2019). "The 'Green New Deal' isn't really that new". MarketWatch. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  25. ^ "II. Social Justice – Criminal Justice". Green Party US. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  26. ^ a b "II. Social Justice – Civil Rights and Equal Rights". Green Party US. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  27. ^ "I. Democracy – Foreign Policy". Green Party US. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  28. ^ "Green Party Condemns Trump's Withdrawal from Iran Nuclear Deal". Green Party US. May 9, 2018. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  29. ^ "Greens, Calling for Palestinian Rights, Urge Divestment from Israel". Green Party US. November 28, 2005. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  30. ^ "The Green Senatorial Campaign Committee". Greenscc.org. Archived from the original on January 15, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2019.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
  31. ^ Grigsby, Karen (October 21, 2010). "Green Party Black Caucus Journal". Gpblackcaucus.blogspot.com. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  32. ^ "Latinx Caucus of The Green Party of the United States". Green Party US. August 17, 2019.
  33. ^ "Lavender Green Caucus". Lavendergreens. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  34. ^ "National Women's Caucus: Green Party". Greens.org. Archived from the original on February 10, 2018. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  35. ^ "Young Ecosocialists". yesgp.org. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  36. ^ "Disability Caucus of the USGP". Immuneweb.org. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  37. ^ "Green Labor Network". Green Party of The United States. Archived from the original on June 15, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  38. ^ "Indigenous Caucus – Green Party Watch". greenpartywatch.org. Archived from the original on December 22, 2017. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  39. ^ "Green Party Elders Caucus". Greenpartyelderscaucus Wordpress. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  40. ^ "2010 Election Database". Greens.org. Archived from the original on January 6, 2009. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  41. ^ Winger, Richard (March 26, 2007). "Maine Green Registration Rises Again". Ballot Access News. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  42. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  43. ^ "Creating a National Precinct Map – Decision Desk HQ". decisiondeskhq.com. Archived from the original on August 20, 2017. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  44. ^ "Green Party Ballot Status and Voter Registration Totals (United States)". Green Party of California. May 2005. Archived from the original on May 26, 2008. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  45. ^ a b "Officeholders". Green Party of the United States. Archived from the original on February 17, 2017. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  46. ^ "Sole Green Party Legislator Makes Switch". RAND California Policy Bulletin. October 18, 1999. Archived from the original on August 13, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  47. ^ "Ca 2000 Election Night Returns" (PDF). The Capital Connection. November 8, 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2010. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  48. ^ "Nation's highest-ranking Green switching parties". The San Diego Union-Tribune. April 29, 2009. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  49. ^ Hardy, Ronald. "Fred Smith Elected to Arkansas State House on Green Party Ticket". Green Party Watch. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  50. ^ Winger, Richard (February 26, 2014). "Arkansas Representative Fred Smith, Elected as a Green Party Nominee in 2012, Files for Re-Election as a Democrat". Ballot Access News. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  51. ^ Hardy, Ronald. "Maine Greens Elect Three; Plus Independent to State Assembly". Green Party Watch. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  52. ^ [legislature.maine.gov]
  53. ^ "Official Results of the 2006 Municipal Election Held on November 7, 2006". Richmond City Clerk's Office. January 25, 2012. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  54. ^ "Results of 2010 midterm elections are mixed bag for Mayor Bloomberg". Daily News. New York. November 7, 2010. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
  55. ^ "Most Greens holding elected office at the same time on a single legislative body". Green Party of the United States. September 12, 2012. Archived from the original on September 16, 2012. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  56. ^ Cousins, Christopher (September 22, 2017). "Lawmaker's party switch gives Greens a seat in the Maine House". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  57. ^ Winger, Richard (December 10, 2016). "Green Party Nominee for U.S. House in Arizona Sets a New Record for Green Candidates for Congress – Ballot Access News". Ballot Access News. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  58. ^ Winger, Richard (September 9, 1996). "PRESIDENTIAL STATUS". Ballot Access News. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  59. ^ "1996 PRESIDENTIAL GENERAL ELECTION RESULTS". FEDERAL ELECTIONS 96. Federal Election Commission. June 1997. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  60. ^ Winger, Richard (October 1, 2000). "PRESIDENTIAL BALLOT STATUS". Ballot Access News. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  61. ^ "2000 PRESIDENTIAL GENERAL ELECTION RESULTS". FEDERAL ELECTIONS 2000. Federal Election Commission. June 2001. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  62. ^ Winger, Richard (November 4, 2004). "2004 BALLOT STATUS FOR PRESIDENT". Ballot Access News. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  63. ^ "OFFICIAL GENERAL ELECTION RESULTS FOR UNITED STATES PRESIDENT NOVEMBER 2, 2004" (PDF). FEDERAL ELECTIONS 2004. Federal Election Commission. May 2005. pp. 27–39. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  64. ^ Winger, Richard (November 1, 2008). "2008 BALLOT STATUS FOR PRESIDENT". Ballot Access News. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  65. ^ "OFFICIAL GENERAL ELECTION RESULTS FOR UNITED STATES PRESIDENT NOVEMBER 4, 2008" (PDF). FEDERAL ELECTIONS 2008. Federal Election Commission. July 2009. pp. 27–40. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  66. ^ Winger, Richard (October 1, 2012). "2012 BALLOT STATUS FOR PRESIDENT". Ballot Access News. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  67. ^ "OFFICIAL GENERAL ELECTION RESULTS FOR UNITED STATES PRESIDENT NOVEMBER 6, 2012" (PDF). FEDERAL ELECTIONS 2012. Federal Election Commission. July 2013. pp. 27–40. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  68. ^ Winger, Richard (November 1, 2016). "BALLOT STATUS FOR PRESIDENT, INCLUDING WRITE-IN STATUS". Ballot Access News. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  69. ^ "OFFICIAL GENERAL ELECTION RESULTS FOR UNITED STATES PRESIDENT NOVEMBER 8, 2016" (PDF). FEDERAL ELECTIONS 2016. Federal Election Commission. December 2017. pp. 25–44. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  70. ^ "Ballot Access". Green Party US. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  71. ^ "Green Party Gains Ballot Status in MA and Breaks New Ground in Midterms". Green Party US. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  72. ^ "U.S. Electoral College: 1992, 1996, and 2000 List Of States And Votes". Federal Register. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  73. ^ "U.S. Electoral College: Distribution of 2004 and 2008 Electoral Votes". Federal Register. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  74. ^ "U.S. Electoral College: Distribution of Electoral Votes". Federal Register. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  75. ^ Bullington, Kathryn (August 2, 2016). "Jill Stein's Ballot Access Campaign Gets Major Boost from Bernie Defectors". Idependent Voter News. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  76. ^ Winger, Richard (August 23, 2016). "Green Party Missouri Petition Approved". Ballot Access News. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  77. ^ Winger, Richard (September 9, 2016). "Rhode Island Secretary of State Says Three Independent Presidential Petitions Have Enough Valid Signatures". Ballot Access News. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  78. ^ Winger, Richard (December 25, 2016). "U.S. House National Totals by Party, 2016". Ballot Access News. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
  79. ^ Winger, Richard (December 22, 2016). "Democrats Outpoll Republicans in U.S. Senate Races by 10,512,669 Votes, but Republicans Win 22 of the 34 Seats". Ballot Access News. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
  80. ^ Garecht, Joe (December 8, 2011). "7 Creative Political Fundraising Ideas". Localvictory.com. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
  81. ^ Becker, Colleen (February 9, 2012). "Long Shots". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
  82. ^ "Green Party – State Parties". Green Party US. 2015. Archived from the original on September 26, 2015. Retrieved August 17, 2019.

External links