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Greek diaspora

Color-coded world map
Map showing the countries with the largest Greek populations

The Greek diaspora, Hellenic diaspora or Omogenia[1][2] (Greek: Ομογένεια) refers to the communities of Greek people living outside Greece, Cyprus which are the traditional Greek homelands, Albania, North Macedonia, parts of the Balkans, southern Russia, Ukraine, Asia Minor, the region of Pontus, Eastern Anatolia, Georgia, the South Caucasus, Egypt, southern Italy and Cargèse in Corsica. The term also refers to communities newly established by Greek migration outside these traditional areas during the 20th and 21st centuries.

Overview

The Greek diaspora is one of the oldest and largest in the world, with an attested presence from Homeric times to the present. Examples of its influence range from the role played by Greek expatriates in the emergence of the Renaissance, through liberation and nationalist movements involved in the fall of the Ottoman Empire, to commercial developments such as the commissioning of the world's first supertankers by shipping magnates Aristotle Onassis and Stavros Niarchos.[3]

History

Antiquity

Map of Greek coastal settlements throughout the Mediterranean and Black Sea
Map of Greek territories and colonies during the Archaic period (800–480 BC)

In Archaic Greece, trading and colonizing activities of the Greek tribes from the Balkans and Asia Minor propagated Greek culture, religion and language around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins. Greek city-states were established in Sicily, southern Italy, northern Libya, eastern Spain, the south of France, and the Black Sea coast, and the Greeks founded over 400 colonies in these areas.[4] Alexander the Great's conquest of the Achaemenid Empire marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period, which was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization in Asia and Africa; the Greek ruling classes established their presence in Egypt, southwest Asia, and Northwest India.[5]

Many Greeks migrated to the new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake, as geographically-dispersed as Uzbekistan[6] and Kuwait.[7] Seleucia, Antioch and Alexandria were among the largest cities in the world during Hellenistic and Roman times.[8] Greeks spread across the Roman Empire, and in the eastern territories the Greek language (rather than Latin) became the lingua franca. The Roman Empire was Christianized in the fourth century AD, and during the late Byzantine period the Greek Orthodox form of Christianity became a hallmark of Greek identity.[9]

Middle Ages

In the seventh century, Emperor Heraclius adopted Medieval Greek as the official language of the Byzantine Empire. Greeks continued to live around the Levant, Mediterranean and Black Sea, maintaining their identity among local populations as traders, officials, and settlers. Soon afterwards, the Arab-Islamic Caliphate seized the Levant, Egypt, North Africa and Sicily from the Byzantine Greeks during the Byzantine–Arab Wars. The Greek populations generally remained in these areas of the Caliphate and helped translate ancient Greek works into Arabic, thus contributing to early Islamic philosophy and science (which, in turn, contributed to Byzantine science).

Fall of Byzantium and exodus to Italy

After the Byzantine–Ottoman Wars, which resulted in the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the Ottoman conquest of Greek lands, many Greeks fled Constantinople (now Istanbul) and found refuge in Italy. They brought ancient Greek writings which had been lost in the West, contributing to the Renaissance. Most of these Greeks settled in Venice, Florence, and Rome.

Fall of the Empire of Trebizond and exodus to Russia and Georgia

Two churches, a short distance apart
Street in Cargèse (Karyes), Corsica (founded by Maniot refugees), with a Greek church in the background

Between the fall of the Empire of Trebizond to the Ottomans in 1461 and the second Russo-Turkish War in 1828–29, thousands of Pontic Greeks migrated (or fled) from the Pontic Alps and eastern Anatolia to Georgia and other southern regions of the Russian Empire, and (later) the Russian province of Kars in the South Caucasus. Many Pontic Greeks fled their homelands in Pontus and northeastern Anatolia and settled in these areas to avoid Ottoman reprisals after supporting the Russian invasions of eastern Anatolia in the Russo-Turkish Wars from the late 18th to the early 20th century. Others resettled in search of new opportunities in trade, mining, farming, the church, the military, and the bureaucracy of the Russian Empire.[10]

Modern era

Ottoman Empire

Orange Greek Orthodox church on a city street
One of Vienna's two Greek Orthodox churches

Greeks spread through many provinces of the Ottoman Empire and took major roles in its economic life, particularly the Phanariots (wealthy Greek merchants who claimed noble Byzantine descent during the second half of the 16th century). The Phanariots helped administer the Ottoman Empire's Balkan domains in the 18th century; some settled in present-day Romania, influencing its political and cultural life. Other Greeks settled outside the southern Balkans, moving north in service to the Orthodox Church or as a result of population transfers and massacres by Ottoman authorities after Greek rebellions against Ottoman rule or suspected Greek collaboration with Russia in the Russo-Turkish wars fought between 1774 and 1878. Greek Macedonia was most affected by the population upheavals, where the large, indigenous Ottoman Muslim population (often including those of Greek-convert descent) could form local militias to harass and exact revenge on the Greek-speaking Christian Orthodox population; this often forced the inhabitants of rural districts, particularly in the more vulnerable lowland areas, to abandon their homes.[citation needed]

A larger-scale movement of Greek-speaking peoples in the Ottoman period was Pontic Greeks from northeastern Anatolia to Georgia and parts of southern Russia, particularly the province of Kars Oblast in the southern Caucasus after the short-lived Russian occupation of Erzerum and the surrounding region during the 1828–29 Russo-Turkish War. An estimated one-fifth of Pontic Greeks left their homeland in the mountains of northeastern Anatolia in 1829 as refugees, following the Tsarist army as it withdrew back into Russian territory (since many had collaborated with—or fought in—the Russian army against the Muslim Ottomans to regain territory for Christian Orthodoxy). The Pontic Greek refugees who settled in Georgia and the southern Caucasus assimilated with preexisting Caucasus Greek communities. Those who settled in Ukraine and southern Russia became a sizable proportion of cities such as Mariupol, but generally assimilated with Christian Orthodox Russians and continued to serve in the Tsarist army.

19th century

Ethnic map of Asia Minor depicting the Ottoman Greeks (blue) in 1910

During and after the Greek War of Independence, Greeks of the diaspora established the fledgling state, raised funds and awareness abroad and served as senior officers in Russian armies which fought the Ottomans to help liberate Greeks under Ottoman subjugation in Macedonia, Epirus, and Thrace. Greek merchant families had contacts in other countries; during the disturbances, many set up home bases around the Mediterranean (notably Marseilles in France, Livorno, Calabria and Bari in Italy and Alexandria in Egypt), Russia (Odessa and St. Petersburg), and Britain (London and Liverpool) from where they traded (typically textiles and grain). Businesses frequently included the extended family, and they brought schools teaching Greek and the Greek Orthodox Church.[11] As markets changed, some families became shippers (financed through the local Greek community, with the aid of the Ralli or Vagliano Brothers). The diaspora expanded across the Levant, North Africa, India[12] and the US.[13] Many leaders of the Greek struggle for liberation from Ottoman Macedonia and other parts of the southern Balkans with large Greek populations still under Ottoman rule had links to the Greek trading and business families who funded the Greek liberation struggle against the Ottomans and the creation of a Greater Greece.

After the Treaty of Constantinople, the political situation stabilised; some displaced families returned to the newly-independent country to become key figures in cultural, educational and political life, especially in Athens. Financial assistance from overseas was channeled through these family ties, providing for institutions such as the National Library and sending relief after natural disasters.

20th century

During the 20th century, many Greeks left the traditional homelands for economic and political reasons; this resulted in large migrations from Greece and Cyprus to the United States, Australia, Canada, Brazil, The United Kingdom, New Zealand, Argentina, The United Arab Emirates, Singapore, Germany, Norway, Belgium, Georgia, Italy, Armenia, Russia, Chile, Mexico and South Africa, especially after World War II (1939–45), the Greek Civil War (1946–49) and the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus in 1974.[14]

Large room with tables, chairs and a TV
Main hall of the Greek community centre in Khartoum, Sudan (2015)

After World War I, most Pontian and Anatolian Greeks living in Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey) were victims of Muslim Turkish intolerance for Christians in the Ottoman Empire. More than 3.5 million people, including Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, and Jews, were killed in the regimes of the Young Turks and Mustafa Kemal from 1914 to 1923.[15] Greeks in Asia Minor fled to modern Greece, and the Russian Empire (later the USSR) was also a major destination.

After the Greek Civil War, many communist Greeks and their families fled to neighboring Yugoslavia, the USSR and the Soviet-dominated states of Eastern Europe (especially Czechoslovakia). Hungary founded a village (Beloiannisz) for Greek refugees, and many Greeks were resettled in the former Sudeten German region of northern Czechoslovakia around Krnov (Jägerndorf). Sweden also admitted large numbers of Greeks, and over 17,000 Greek-Swedish descendants live in the country. Although many immigrants later returned to Greece, these countries still have a number of first- and second-generation Greeks who maintain their traditions.[14]

The Arab nationalism of President Nasser of Egypt led to the expulsion of a large Greek population.[citation needed] With the fall of Communism in eastern Europe and the USSR, Greeks of the diaspora immigrated to modern Greece's main urban centers of Athens, Thessaloniki, and Cyprus; many came from Georgia.[14]

Pontic Greeks are Greek-speaking communities originating in the Black Sea region, particularly from the Trebizond region, the Pontic Alps, eastern Anatolia, Georgia, and the former Russian south-Caucasus Kars Oblast. After 1919–23, most of these Pontic Greek and Caucasus Greek communities resettled in Greek Macedonia or joined other Greek communities in southern Russia and Ukraine.

Greek nationality

Anyone who is ethnically Greek and born outside Greece may become a Greek citizen through naturalization if they can prove that a parent or grandparent was a Greek national. The Greek ancestor's birth and marriage certificates and the applicant's birth certificate are required, along with birth certificates for all intervening generations between the applicant and the person with Greek citizenship.

Greek citizenship is acquired by birth by all persons born in Greece and all persons born to at least one parent who is a registered Greek citizen. People born out of wedlock to a father who is a Greek citizen and a mother who is a non-Greek automatically gain Greek citizenship if the father recognizes them as his child before they turn 18.[16][17]

Present day

Part of a series on
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History of Greece

Centers of the Greek diaspora are New York City,[18] Boston,[19] Chicago,[20] Los Angeles, London, Melbourne, Sydney, Auckland, Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires.[14]

The SAE – World Council of Hellenes Abroad has compiled several studies on the Greek diaspora. The total number of Greeks living outside Greece and Cyprus is uncertain. Available census figures indicate about three million Greeks outside Greece and Cyprus, but the SAE estimates about seven million worldwide. The Greek diaspora defends Greek interests, particularly in the US.[21] Assimilation and loss of the Greek language influence the definition of the Greek diaspora. To learn more about how factors such as intermarriage and assimilation influence self-identification among young Greeks in the diaspora, and to help clarify the estimates of Greeks in the diaspora, the Next Generation Initiative began an academically-supervised research study in 2008.[citation needed]

United States

The United States has the largest ethnically-Greek population outside Greece. According to the US Department of State, the Greek-American community numbers about three million and the vast majority are third- or fourth-generation immigrants.[22] According to the World Council of Churches, the Ecumenical Patriarchate has a membership of 2,800,000 in the US and Canada who are still Greek Orthodox;[23] however, many Greeks in both countries have adopted other religions or become secular. The 2010 census recorded about 1,300,000 Greek Americans, although members of the community dispute its accuracy.[citation needed]

Canada

Most Greek Canadians live in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. The 2016 census[24] reported that 271,405 Canadians were Greek by ancestry and 62,715 people were born in Greece. According to Greeks around the Globe,[25] the Greek Canadian population totals about 450,000.

Chile

Greek immigration to Chile began during the 16th century from the island of Crete. Cretan Greeks settled in the Antofagasta Region in the mid-16th century and spread to other locations, such as the Greek colony in Santiago and the cities of San Diego, Valparaíso, Talcahuano, Puerto Mont, and Punta Arenas.[citation needed]

Australia

Australia has one of the world's largest Greek communities. Greek immigration to Australia began during the 20th century, increasing significantly in the 1950s and 1960s. According to the 2016 census, there were 422,234 Greeks and Greek Cypriots (by ancestry) living in Australia and 110,669 Greeks born in Greece or Cyprus. According to Greeks around the Globe,[26] Greek Australians number about 700,000.

Brazil

About 50,000 Greeks immigrated to Brazil from Greece and Cyprus, with 20,000 in the city of Sao Paulo. Brazil has a sizable community of Antiochean Greeks (known as Melkites), Orthodox, and Catholics. According to the Catholic Church,[27] the Eparchy of Nossa Senhora do Paraíso em São Paulo (Melkite Greek), the Eparchia Dominae Nostrae Paradisis S. Pauli Graecorum Melkitarum had a 2016 membership of 446,600. The World Council of Churches estimates that the Greek church of Antioch has a membership of 2,500,000 in Latin America, almost all of whom live in Brazil.[28]

From 1884 to 1933, about 130,000 people immigrated from Lebanon to Brazil. Approximately 65 percent were Catholics (primarily Greek Melkites and Maronites), 20 percent were Greek Orthodox Melkites, and 15 percent were Druzes and other Muslims. The Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Lebanese government estimate that 7,000,000 people in Brazil have Lebanese ancestry. According to the Brazilian government, about 4,000,000 Brazilians have Syrian ancestry (primarily Christians: Greek Orthodox or former Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholic, Melkites, and minorities of Maronites and Assyriacs). About 20 percent of Lebanese Brazilians are Greek Orthodox. Approximately 2,500,000 Greek Orthodox Melkites and 446,600 Greek Catholic Melkites live in Brazil, for a total 2,946,600 Antiochean Greeks.[citation needed] However, adherents of Greek Orthodox Churches are not necessarily ethnic Greeks. Probably the majority of Melkites, Maronites, and some Greek Orthodox are ethnic Syrians and Lebanese.

Demographics

List of countries and territories by Greek population
Country/territory Official data Estimates Article
United States 1,319,188 (ACS-5Y 2012, Greek or Cypriot ancestry),

136,914 (ACS-5Y 2012, born in Greece)[29]

3,000,000[30] Greek Americans
Cyprus 721,000 (2011 census, Cypriot and Greek citizens)[31]

322 (2006 census, Ethnic Greeks in the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus)[32]

1,150,000[33] Greek Cypriots
Germany 443,000 (2016, Greek Ethnic Origin),[34]
348,475 (2016, Greek citizens),
274,060 (2016, born in Greece),

74,415 (2016, born in Germany)[35]

320,000,[36] 370,000[37][38] Greeks in Germany
Australia 397,431 (2016 census, Greek ancestry),

93,743 (2016 census, born in Greece)[39]

422,234 (2016 census, Greek or Cypriot ancestry),

110,669 (2016 census, born in Greece or Cyprus),[39]
700,000[37]

Greek Australians
Canada 271,405 (2016 census, Greek ancestry),

62,715 (2016 census, born in Greece)[40]

277,060 (2016 census, Greek or Cypriot ancestry),

67,245 (2011 census, born in Greece),[40]
720,000[37]

Greek Canadians
United Kingdom 78,872 (2011 census, The figure includes Greeks from Greece proper and Greek Cypriots, residing in England and Wales)[41] 300,000-400,000[42] Greek Britons
Albania 24,243 (2011 census. Majority are Greek passport holders/migrants. Census deemed corrupt)[43] to 550,000 Sources vary. Between 200,000 and 550,000 Ethnic Greeks in Albania.[44][45][46][47][48] In addition, a large number also reside in Greece, Australia and the United States.[49] Greeks in Albania
Ukraine 91,500 (2001 census)[50] Greeks in Ukraine
Russia 85,640 (2010 census)[51] Greeks in Russia and Caucasus Greeks
South Africa 4,069 (Greek Citizens), 1,883 (Cypriot Citizens)[52] 50,000-60,000[53] 120,000[37][54] Greeks in South Africa
Netherlands 25,709 (2019, Greek foreign origin and descendants)[55]
18,863 (2019, Foreign national, Greece)[56]
4,000,[37] 12,500[57] Greeks in the Netherlands
Belgium 24,836 (2014, Greek foreign origin and descendants) Belgium, Greek ethnic origin
17,350 (2018, Foreign-born, Greece) Belgium, Population by Country of Birth[58]
17,513 (2018, Foreign national, Greece) Belgium, Foreign national[59]
24,836 (2014, Greek foreign origin and descendants) Belgium, Greek ethnic origin[60]
16,275 (2015, Foreign national, Greece) Belgium, Foreign national[61]
Greeks in Belgium
Sweden 18,917 (2018, Foreign-born, Greece) [62]
10,731 (2018, Foreign national, Greece) [63]
[64] Greeks in Sweden
Switzerland 12,138 (2015, Foreign-born, Greece) [65]
13,374 (2017, Foreign national, Greece) [66]
8,340,[37] 11,000[67]
France 11,100 (2016, Foreign-born, Greece) [68]
7,800 (2016, Foreign national, Greece) [69]
35,000 – 80,000[70][71]

35,747 (2005, Greek citizens)[72][71]

Greeks in France
Italy 7,898 (2016, Foreign national, Greece) [73] 7,572 (2018, Greek citizens)[72]
20,000,[37] 30,000[74]
Greeks in Italy
Austria 6,766 (2019, Foreign-born, Greece) [75]
6,864 (2019, Foreign national, Greece) [76]
5,000[77] Greeks in Austria
Spain 4,353 (2018, Foreign-born, Greece) [78]
4,245 (2018, Foreign national, Greece) [79]
300,[37] 1,500–2,000[80]
Denmark 3,401 (2019, Foreign national, Greece) [81] Greeks in Denmark
Norway 3,072 (2019, Foreign-born, Greece) [82] Greeks in Norway
Georgia N/A 15,166 (2002 census)[83] Greeks in Georgia and Caucasus Greeks
Chile 8,500 (2012 census) 90,000-120,000[84] in Santiago and Antofagasta Greeks in Chile
Brazil N/A 25,000[85] – 30,000[86] 50,000 in Sao Paulo[87] Greeks in Brazil
Argentina 2,196 (2001, born in Greece)[88] 35,000,[89] 50,000[90] Greeks in Argentina
Mexico N/A 25,000[91] Greek Mexicans
Serbia 725 (2011 census)[92] 15,000[93] Greeks in Serbia
Kazakhstan 12,703 (1999 census)[94] Greeks in Kazakhstan
Uzbekistan 10,453 (1989 census)[95] 9,500[96] Greeks in Uzbekistan
Romania 6,513 (2002 census)[97] Greeks in Romania
New Zealand 2,589 (2013 census, people who declared Greek ancestry), 999 born in Greece[98] 4,500,[99] 10,000[37] Greeks in New Zealand
Venezuela N/A 3,000 (Greek-born population)[100] Greeks in Venezuela
Egypt N/A 3,000,[101] 5,000[85] Greeks in Egypt
Bulgaria 3,408 (2001 census)[102] 28,500[103] Greeks in Bulgaria
Czech Republic 3,231 (2001 census)[104] 7,000[105] Greeks in the Czech Republic
Moldova N/A 3,000[106] Greeks in Moldova
Hungary 3,916 (2011 census)[107] 4,000 – 10,000[108] Greeks in Hungary
Turkey N/A 2,500-347,500[109] Greeks in Turkey, Pontic Greeks and Caucasus Greeks
Lebanon N/A 1,500-2,500[37][110] Greeks in Lebanon
Oman N/A 1,500[37]
Saudi Arabia N/A 1,300[37]
Luxembourg 1,571 (2009)[111]
Cameroon N/A 1,200[37]
Zimbabwe N/A 1,100[112] Greeks in Zimbabwe
Uruguay N/A 1,000,[37] 2,000[113] Greeks in Uruguay
Syria N/A 8,000[37] Greeks in Syria
Armenia 900 (2011 census)[114] Greeks in Armenia and Caucasus Greeks
Panama N/A 800,[37] 1,000[113]
Zambia N/A 800[115] Greeks in Zambia
Kyrgyzstan N/A 650–700[116] Greeks in Kyrgyzstan
Finland 1,681[117] 500[118] Greeks in Finland
Malta N/A 500[119] Greeks in Malta
Ethiopia N/A 500[120] Greeks in Ethiopia
Uganda 426 (1991, Greek citizens)[121]
Republic of North Macedonia 422 (2002 census)[122] Greeks in North Macedonia
Jordan N/A 400,[37] 600[123]
Democratic Republic of the Congo N/A 300[124] Greeks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Bahamas N/A 300[37]
Nigeria N/A 300[125]
Tanzania N/A 300[37]
Barbados N/A 300[126]
The Gambia N/A 300[127]
Costa Rica N/A 80,[37] 290[128]
Israel N/A 10,000-60,000 Greek Jews (Sephardic and Romaniote); 250-300 (non-Jewish Greeks)[129] Greeks in Israel
Sudan N/A 250[130] Greeks in Sudan
Azerbaijan N/A 250–300[131] Greeks in Azerbaijan
Lithuania N/A 250[132]
Malawi N/A 200[133]
Colombia N/A 200[37]
Ireland N/A 200[37][134]
Kenya N/A 200[37]
United Arab Emirates N/A 200[37]
Morocco N/A 180[37]
Peru N/A 150,[37] 350[135]
Portugal N/A 150,[37] 240[136]
Botswana N/A 150[37]
Djibouti N/A 150[37]
Estonia 150 (2001 census)[137]
Hong Kong N/A 150[37]
Kuwait N/A 140[138]
Latvia 289 (2011 census)[139] 100[140]
Japan N/A 100,[37] 300[141]
Bolivia N/A 100[142]
China N/A 100[143]
Philippines N/A 100[144] Greeks in the Philippines
South Sudan N/A 90[145] Greeks in South Sudan
Indonesia N/A 72[146]
Papua New Guinea N/A 70[37]
Iran N/A 60,[37] 80[147]
Ivory Coast N/A 60[37]
Madagascar N/A 60[37]
Slovenia 54 (2002 census)[148]
Croatia N/A 50[149]
Tunisia N/A 50[37]
Senegal N/A 50[37]
Thailand N/A 50[150]
Central African Republic N/A 40[37]
Qatar N/A 3.000[151]
Singapore N/A 40[152]
Cuba N/A 30[37]
Algeria N/A 30[37]
Eritrea N/A 30[37]
Slovakia N/A 100[153]
Paraguay N/A 20,[37] 25[152]
Chad N/A 20[37]
Ecuador N/A 3,000[37]
Guatemala N/A 20[37]
Mozambique N/A 20[37]
Namibia N/A 20[37]
Togo N/A 20[37]
Taiwan N/A 20[37]
Republic of the Congo N/A 10[37]
Dominican Republic N/A 14[154]
Vietnam N/A 10[155]

Notable Greeks of the diaspora

Notable people of the Greek diaspora (including those of Greek ancestry):

See also

References

  1. ^ Anagnostou, Yiorgos (2009). Contours of white ethnicity popular ethnography and the making of usable pasts in Greek America. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-8214-4361-3. ...providing an alternative to ascription omogenia (of the same race)—a term widely used by state representatives as well sectors of the ethnic media—to refer to Greek populations outside Greece.
  2. ^ Tziovas, Dimitris (2009). Greek diaspora and migration since 1700 society, politics and culture. Farnham, England: Ashgate Pub. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-7546-9374-1.
  3. ^ Rozen, Mina (2008). Homelands and Diasporas: Greeks, Jews and Their Migrations (International Library of Migration Studies). London, England: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-642-2.
  4. ^ Jerry H. Bentley, Herbert F. Ziegler, "Traditions and Encounters, 2/e," Chapter 10: "Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase" Archived 2012-03-06 at the Wayback Machine (McGraw-Hill, 2003)
  5. ^ Hellenistic Civilization Archived July 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "Menander became the ruler of a kingdom extending along the coast of western India, including the whole of Saurashtra and the harbour Barukaccha. His territory also included Mathura, the Punjab, Gandhara and the Kabul Valley", Bussagli p101
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  9. ^ Peregrine Horden, Nicholas Purcell, The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History,2000, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-21890-4
  10. ^ See for example Anthony Bryer', 'The Empire of Trebizond and the Pontus' (Variorum, 1980) and his 'Migration and Settlement in the Caucasus and Anatolia' (Variorum, 1988), as well as works listed in Caucasus Greeks and Greeks in Georgia.
  11. ^ Ina Baghdiantz McCabe, Gelina Harlaftis, Iōanna Pepelasē Minoglou, Diaspora Entrepreneurial Networks: Four Centuries of History, 2000, p.147, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-60047-9
  12. ^ Vassiliadis, Dimitrios, "Three Centuries of Hellenic Presence in Bengal," ELINEPA, 2005
  13. ^ Vassilis Kardasis, Diaspora Merchants in the Black Sea: The Greeks in Southern Russia, 1775–1861,2001, Lexington Books, ISBN 0-7391-0245-1
  14. ^ a b c d Richard Clogg, The Greek diaspora in the twentieth century, 2000, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-60047-9
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  17. ^ "Loss of Citizenship". allthegreeks.com. Archived from the original on 2012-02-24. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
  18. ^ "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010–2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
  19. ^ "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010–2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
  20. ^ "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010–2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
  21. ^ Alexander Kitroeff & Stephanos Constantinides, 'The Greek-Americans and US Foreign Policy Since 1950' Etudes helléniques/ Hellenic Studies, vol.6, no.1, Printemps/Spring 1998
  22. ^ "Greece". U.S. Department of State.
  23. ^ "Ecumenical Patriarchate — World Council of Churches".
  24. ^ "Ethnic Origin (279), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3), Generation Status (4), Age (12) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census – 25% Sample Data". 2017-10-25.
  25. ^ [web.archive.org]
  26. ^ [www.ausgreeknet.com]
  27. ^ "Nossa Senhora do Paraíso em São Paulo (Melkite Greek)".
  28. ^ "Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East — World Council of Churches".
  29. ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  30. ^ "Greece (08/09)". United States Department of State. August 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-01. An estimated three million American residents in the United States claim Greek descent.
  31. ^ "Statistical Service – Population and Social Conditions – Population Census – Announcements – Preliminary Results of the Census of Population, 2011". Cystat.gov.cy. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  32. ^ "Yaş Grubu, Milliyet ve Cinsiyete Göre Sürekli İkamet Eden(De-jure) KKTC Vatandaşı Nüfus". State Planning Organisation of TRNC. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  33. ^ Cole, Jeffrey (2011), Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, p. 92, ISBN 1-59884-302-8
  34. ^ "Migration and integration".
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External links