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Greco-Buddhist art

stone bust of Gandhara Buddha from the 1st-2nd century AD
Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century AD

Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1,000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and the Islamic conquests of the 7th century AD. Greco-Buddhist art is characterized by the strong idealistic realism and sensuous description of Hellenistic art and the first representations of the Buddha in human form, which have helped define the artistic (and particularly, sculptural) canon for Buddhist art throughout the Asian continent up to the present. It is also a strong example of cultural syncretism between eastern and western traditions.

The origins of Greco-Buddhist art are to be found in the Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian kingdom (250–130 BC), located in today’s Afghanistan, from which Hellenistic culture radiated into the Indian subcontinent with the establishment of the Indo-Greek kingdom (180–10 BC). Under the Indo-Greeks and then the Kushans, the interaction of Greek and Buddhist culture flourished in the area of Gandhara, in today’s northern Pakistan, before spreading further into India, influencing the art of Mathura, and then the Hindu art of the Gupta empire, which was to extend to the rest of South-East Asia. The influence of Greco-Buddhist art also spread northward towards Central Asia, strongly affecting the art of the Tarim Basin, and ultimately the arts of China, Korea, and Japan.

Hellenistic art in southern Asia

Silver coin depicting Demetrius I of Bactria (200-180 BC) wearing an elephant scalp, symbol of his conquest of India, and reverse Herakles, holding a lion skin and a club
Silver coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius I (200–180 BC) wearing an elephant scalp, symbol of his conquest of India. Back: Herakles, holding a lion skin and a club resting over the arm. The text reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ – BASILÉŌS DĒMĒTRÍOU "of King Demetrius".

Powerful Hellenistic states were established in the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, and later northern India for three centuries following the conquests of Alexander the Great around 330 BC, the Seleucid empire until 250 BC, followed by the Greco-Bactrian kingdom until 130 BC, and the Indo-Greek kingdom from 180 BC to around 10 BC.

The clearest examples of Hellenistic art are found in the coins of the Greco-Bactrian kings of the period, such as Demetrius I of Bactria. Many coins of the Greco-Bactrian kings have been unearthed, including the largest silver and gold coins ever minted in the Hellenistic world, ranking among the best in artistic and technical sophistication: they "show a degree of individuality never matched by the often more bland descriptions of their royal contemporaries further West". ("Greece and the Hellenistic world").

stone relief carving Wine-drinking and music from Chakhil-i-Ghoundi stupa, Hadda, Afghanistan
Wine-drinking and music (Detail from Chakhil-i-Ghoundi stupa, Hadda, 1st–2nd century AD).

These Hellenistic kingdoms established cities on the Greek model, such as in Ai-Khanoum in Bactria, displaying purely Hellenistic architectural features, Hellenistic statuary, and remains of Aristotelician papyrus prints and coin hoards.

These Greek elements penetrated India quite early as shown by the Hellenistic Pataliputra capital (3rd century BC), but the influence became especially strong, particularly in northwestern India, following the invasion of the Greco-Bactrians in 180 BC, when they established the Indo-Greek kingdom in India. Fortified Greek cities, such as Sirkap in northern Pakistan, were established. Architectural styles used Hellenistic decorative motifs such as fruit garland and scrolls. Stone palettes for aromatic oils representing purely Hellenistic themes such as a Nereid riding a Ketos sea monster are found.

In Hadda, Hellenistic deities, such as Atlas are found. Wind gods are depicted, which will affect the representation of wind deities as far as Japan. Dionysiac scenes represent people in Classical style drinking wine from amphoras and playing instruments.

Early Gandhara creations: stone palettes (2nd century BCE – 1st century CE)

The Greeks in Asia are well known archaeologically for their stone palettes, also called "toilet trays", round trays commonly found in the areas of Bactria and Gandhara, which usually represent Greek mythological scenes. The earliest of them are attributed to the Indo-Greek period in the 2nd and 1st century BCE (a few were retrieved from the Indo-Greek stratum No.5 at Sirkap).[1][2] Production continued until the time of the Indo-Parthians, but they practically disappeared after the 1st century.

Early stone palettes

Interaction

As soon as the Greeks invaded Northwestern South Asia to form the Indo-Greek kingdom, a fusion of Hellenistic and Buddhist elements started to appear, encouraged by the benevolence of the Greek kings towards Buddhism. This artistic trend then developed for several centuries and seemed to flourish further during the Kushan Empire from the 1st century AD.

Early contributions of Gandharan artists to Buddhist art (2nd-1st century BC)

According to some authors, Hellenistic sculptors had some connection with the creation of Buddhist art at Sanchi and Bharhut.[3] The structure as a whole as well as various elements point to Hellenistic and other foreign influence, such as the fluted bell, addorsed capital of the Persepolitan order, and the abundant use of the Hellenistic flame palmette or honeysuckle motif.[4]

Sanchi

Around 115 BC, the embassy of Heliodorus from king Antialkidas to the court of the Sungas king Bhagabhadra in Vidisha is recorded. In the Sunga capital, Heliodorus established the Heliodorus pillar in a dedication to Vāsudeva. This would indicate that relations between the Indo-Greeks and the Sungas had improved by that time, that people traveled between the two realms, and also that the Indo-Greeks readily followed Indian religions.[5]

Also around the same time, circa 115 BC, it is known that architectural decorations such as decorative reliefs started to be introduced at nearby Sanchi, 6 km away from Vidisha, by craftsmen from the area of Gandhara, a central Indo-Greek region.[6][7] Typically, the earliest medallions at Sanchi Stupa No.2 are dated to 115 BC, while the more extensive pillar carvings are dated to 80 BC.[8] These early decorative reliefs were apparently the work of craftsmen from the northwest (around the area of Gandhara), since they left mason's marks in Kharoshthi, as opposed to the local Brahmi script.[6][7] This seems to imply that these foreign workers were responsible for some of the earliest motifs and figures that can be found on the railings of the stupa.[6][7]

Early reliefs at Sanchi, Stupa No 2 (circa 115 BC)
Sanchi, Stupa No2
Sanchi Stupa 12.jpg
Mason's marks in Kharoshti point to craftsmen from the north-west (region of Gandhara) for the earliest reliefs at Sanchi, circa 115 BC.[6][8][9][8]

Bharhut

At Bharhut, the gateways were made by northern (probably Gandharan) masons using Kharosthi marks, while the railings were made by masons exclusively using marks in the local Brahmi script.[11][12] 150-100 BC.

Craftsmen from the Gandhara area, a central region of the Indo-Greek realm, are known to have been involved in the construction of the gateways at Bharhut, which are dated to 100-75 BC:[13][14] this is because mason's marks in Kharosthi have been found on several elements of the Bharhut remains, indicating that some of the builders at least came from the north, particularly from Gandhara where the Kharoshti script was in use.[11][4][15]

Statues on the architraves of the torana gateway, associated with Kharosthi marks. 100-75 BC.

Cunningham explained that the Kharosthi letters were found on the ballusters between the architraves of the gateway, but none on the railings which all had Indian markings, summarizing that the gateways, which are artistically more refined, must have been made by artists from the North, whereas the railings were made by local artists.[12] The Bharhut gateway is dated to 100-75 BC (most probably 75 BC based on artistic analysis).[13]

The structure as a whole as well as various elements point to Hellenistic and other foreign influence, such as the fluted bell, addorsed capital of the Persepolitan order, and the abundant use of the Hellenistic flame palmette or honeysuckle motif.[4]

Characteristics of Greco-Buddhist art

Artistic model

Left image: Classical Greek Corinthian anta capital.
Right image: An Indo-Corinthian capital with a palmette and the Buddha at its centre, 3-4th century, Gandhara.
The story of the Trojan horse was depicted in the art of Gandhara. British Museum.

Later, Greco-Buddhist art depicts the life of the Buddha in a visual manner, probably by incorporating the real-life models and concepts which were available to the artists of the period.

The Bodhisattvas are depicted as bare-chested and jewelled Indian princes, and the Buddhas as Greek kings wearing the light toga-like himation. The buildings in which they are depicted incorporate Greek style, with the ubiquitous Indo-Corinthian capitals and Greek decorative scrolls. Surrounding deities form a pantheon of Greek (Atlas, Herakles) and Indian gods (Indra).

Material

Stucco as well as stone was widely used by sculptors in Gandhara for the decoration of monastic and cult buildings. Stucco provided the artist with a medium of great plasticity, enabling a high degree of expressiveness to be given to the sculpture. Sculpting in stucco was popular wherever Buddhism spread from Gandhara - India, Afghanistan, Central Asia and China.

Stylistic evolution

Stylistically, Greco-Buddhist art started by being extremely fine and realistic, as apparent on the standing Buddhas, with "a realistic treatment of the folds and on some even a hint of modelled volume that characterizes the best Greek work" (Boardman). It then lost this sophisticated realism, becoming progressively more symbolic and decorative over the centuries.

Architecture

he Titan Atlas supporting a Buddhist monument, from Hadda, Afghanistan
The Titan Atlas, supporting a Buddhist monument, Hadda.

The presence of stupas at the Greek city of Sirkap, which was built by Demetrius around 180 BC, already indicates a strong syncretism between Hellenism and the Buddhist faith, together with other religions such as Hinduism and Zoroastrianism. The style is Greek, adorned with Corinthian columns in excellent Hellenistic execution.

Later in Hadda, the Greek divinity Atlas is represented holding Buddhist monuments with decorated Greek columns. The motif was adopted extensively throughout the Indian sub-continent, Atlas being substituted for the Indian Yaksa in the monuments of the Shunga Empire around the 2nd century BC.

Buddha

bronze sculpture of the Gautama Buddha 1st–2nd century AD, Gandhara, Pakistan
One of the first representations of the Buddha, 1st–2nd century AD, Gandhara, Pakistan: Standing Buddha (Tokyo National Museum).
The Seated Buddha, dating from 300 to 500 CE, was found near Jamal Garhi, Pakistan, and is now on display at the Asian Art Museum in San Francisco.

Sometime between the 2nd century BC and the 1st century AD, the first anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha were developed. These were absent from earlier strata of Buddhist art, which preferred to represent the Buddha with symbols such as the stupa, the Bodhi tree, the empty seat, the wheel, or the footprints. But the innovative anthropomorphic Buddha image immediately reached a very high level of sculptural sophistication, naturally inspired by the sculptural styles of Hellenistic Greece.

Many of the stylistic elements in the representations of the Buddha point to Greek influence: the Greek himation (a light toga-like wavy robe covering both shoulders: Buddhist characters are always represented with a dhoti loincloth before this innovation), the halo, the contrapposto stance of the upright figures, the stylized Mediterranean curly hair and top-knot apparently derived from the style of the Belvedere Apollo (330 BC), and the measured quality of the faces, all rendered with strong artistic realism (See: Greek art). Some of the standing Buddhas (as the one pictured) were sculpted using the specific Greek technique of making the hands and sometimes the feet in marble to increase the realistic effect, and the rest of the body in another material.

Foucher especially considered Hellenistic free-standing Buddhas as "the most beautiful, and probably the most ancient of the Buddhas", assigning them to the 1st century BC, and making them the starting point of the anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha ("The Buddhist art of Gandhara", Marshall, p101).

Development

An Indo-Corinthian capital from the Butkara Stupa from the Turin City Museum of Ancient Art
An Indo-Corinthian capital from the Butkara Stupa under which a coin of Azes II was found. Dated to 20 BC or earlier (Turin City Museum of Ancient Art).
gold relief vessel The Bimaran casket, representing the Buddha, dated from 30–10 BC. from the British Museum
The Bimaran casket, representing the Buddha, is dated to around 30–10 BC. British Museum.

There is some debate regarding the exact date for the development of the anthropomorphic representation of the Buddha, and this has a bearing on whether the innovation came directly from the Indo-Greeks, or was a later development by the Indo-Scythians, the Indo-Parthians or the Kushans under Hellenistic artistic influence. Most of the early images of the Buddha (especially those of the standing Buddha) are anepigraphic, which makes it difficult to have a definite dating. The earliest known image of the Buddha with approximate indications on date is the Bimaran casket, which has been found buried with coins of the Indo-Scythian king Azes II (or possibly Azes I), indicating a 30–10 BC date, although this date is not undisputed.

Such datation, as well as the general Hellenistic style and attitude of the Buddha on the Bimaran casket (himation dress, contrapposto attitude, general depiction) would make it a possible Indo-Greek work, used in dedications by Indo-Scythians soon after the end of Indo-Greek rule in the area of Gandhara. Since it already displays quite a sophisticated iconography (Brahma and Śakra as attendants, Bodhisattvas) in an advanced style, it would suggest much earlier representations of the Buddha were already current by that time, going back to the rule of the Indo-Greeks (Alfred A. Foucher and others).

Fresco describing Emperor Han Wudi (156–87 BC) worshipping two statues of the Buddha
Fresco describing Emperor Han Wudi (156–87 BC) worshipping two statues of the Buddha, Mogao Caves, Dunhuang, c. 8th century AD

The next Greco-Buddhist findings to be strictly datable are rather late, such as the c. AD 120 Kanishka casket and Kanishka's Buddhist coins. These works at least indicate though that the anthropomorphic representation of the Buddha was already extant in the 1st century AD.

From another direction, Chinese historical sources and mural paintings in the Tarim Basin city of Dunhuang accurately describe the travels of the explorer and ambassador Zhang Qian to Central Asia as far as Bactria around 130 BC, and the same murals describe the Emperor Han Wudi (156–87 BC) worshipping Buddhist statues, explaining them as "golden men brought in 120 BC by a great Han general in his campaigns against the nomads." Although there is no other mention of Han Wudi worshipping the Buddha in Chinese historical literature, the murals would suggest that statues of the Buddha were already in existence during the 2nd century BC, connecting them directly to the time of the Indo-Greeks.

Later, the Chinese historical chronicle Hou Hanshu describes the enquiry about Buddhism made around AD 67 by the emperor Emperor Ming (AD 58–75). He sent an envoy to the Yuezhi in northwestern India, who brought back paintings and statues of the Buddha, confirming their existence before that date:

"The Emperor, to discover the true doctrine, sent an envoy to Tianzhu (天竺, Northwestern India) (Northwestern India) to inquire about the Buddha’s doctrine, after which paintings and statues [of the Buddha] appeared in the Middle Kingdom." (Hou Hanshu, trans. John Hill)

An Indo-Chinese tradition also explains that Nagasena, also known as Menander's Buddhist teacher, created in 43 BC in the city of Pataliputra a statue of the Buddha, the Emerald Buddha, which was later brought to Thailand.

Artistic model

Vajrapani-Heracles as the protector of the Buddha, 2nd century from Gandhara
Heracles depiction of Vajrapani as the protector of the Buddha, 2nd century Gandhara, British Museum.
The Buddha and a naked Vajrapani in a frieze at Jamal Garhi, Gandhara.

In Gandharan art, the Buddha is often shown under the protection of the Greek god Herakles, standing with his club (and later a diamond rod) resting over his arm.[16] This unusual representation of Herakles is the same as the one on the back of Demetrius' coins, and it is exclusively associated to him (and his son Euthydemus II), seen only on the back of his coins.

Soon, the figure of the Buddha was incorporated within architectural designs, such as Corinthian pillars and friezes. Scenes of the life of the Buddha are typically depicted in a Greek architectural environment, with protagonist wearing Greek clothes.

Gods and Bodhisattvas

bronze figure The Bodhisattva Maitreya, 2nd century, Gandhara
The Bodhisattva Maitreya, 2nd century, Gandhara.
stone fragment The Buddhist gods Pancika (left) and Hariti (right), 3rd century, Takht-i Bahi
The Buddhist gods Pancika (left) and Hariti (right), 3rd century, Takht-i Bahi, Gandhara, British Museum.

Deities from the Greek mythological pantheon also tend to be incorporated in Buddhist representations, displaying a strong syncretism. In particular, Herakles (of the type of the Demetrius coins, with club resting on the arm) has been used abundantly as the representation of Vajrapani, the protector of the Buddha.[17] Other Greek deities abundantly used in Greco-Buddhist art are representation of Atlas, and the Greek wind god Boreas. Atlas in particular tends to be involved as a sustaining elements in Buddhist architectural elements. Boreas became the Japanese wind god Fujin through the Greco-Buddhist Wardo. The mother deity Hariti was inspired by Tyche.

Particularly under the Kushans, there are also numerous representations of richly adorned, princely Bodhisattvas all in a very realistic Greco-Buddhist style. The Bodhisattvas, characteristic of the Mahayana form of Buddhism, are represented under the traits of Kushan princes, completed with their canonical accessories.

Cupids

stone fragment Cupids and garlands. Gandhara. 1st-2nd century
Cupids and garlands. Gandhara. 1st-2nd century. Musée Guimet.

Winged cupids are another popular motif in Greco-Buddhist art. They usually fly in pair, holding a wreath, the Greek symbol of victory and kingship, over the Buddha.

Winged Cupids holding a wreath over the Buddha from Hadda, Afghanistan
Winged Cupids holding a wreath over the Buddha (left:detail), Hadda, 3rd century. Musée Guimet.

These figures, also known as "apsarases" were extensively adopted in Buddhist art, especially throughout Eastern Asia, in forms derivative to the Greco-Buddhist representation. The progressive evolution of the style can be seen in the art of Qizil and Dunhuang. It is unclear however if the concept of the flying cupids was brought to India from the West, of if it had an independent Indian origin, although Boardman considers it a Classical contribution: "Another Classical motif we found in India is the pair of hovering winged figures, generally called apsaras." (Boardman)

Scenes of cupids holding rich garlands, sometimes adorned with fruits, is another very popular Gandharan motif, directly inspired from Greek art. It is sometimes argued that the only concession to Indian art appears in the anklets worn by the cupids. These scenes had a very broad influence, as far as Amaravati on the eastern coast of India, where the cupids are replaced by yakṣas.

Devotees

Gandhara frieze with devotees, holding Plantain leaves 1st-2nd century AD.
Gandhara frieze with devotees, holding plantain leaves, in purely Hellenistic style, inside Corinthian columns, 1st-2nd century AD. Buner, Swat, Pakistan. Victoria and Albert Museum.

Some Greco-Buddhist friezes represent groups of donors or devotees, giving interesting insights into the cultural identity of those who participated in the Buddhist cult.

Some groups, often described as the "Buner reliefs," usually dated to the 1st century AD, depict Greeks in perfect Hellenistic style, either in posture, rendering, or clothing (wearing the Greek chiton and himation). It is sometimes even difficult to perceive an actual religious message behind the scenes. (The devotee scene on the right might, with doubt, depict of the presentation of Prince Siddharta to his bride. It may also just be a festive scene.)

About a century later, friezes also depict Kushan devotees, usually with the Buddha as the central figure.

Fantastic animals

stone fragment An Ichthyo-Centaur, 2nd century Gandhara
An Ichthyo-Centaur, 2nd century Gandhara, Victoria and Albert Museum.

Various fantastic animal deities of Hellenic origin were used as decorative elements in Buddhist temples, often triangular friezes in staircases or in front of Buddhist altars. The origin of these motifs can be found in Greece in the 5th century BC, and later in the designs of Greco-Bactrian perfume trays as those discovered in Sirkap. Among the most popular fantastic animals are tritons, ichthyo-centaurs and ketos sea-monsters. It should be noted that similar fantastic animals are found in ancient Egyptian reliefs, and might therefore have been passed on to Bactria and India independently of Greek imperialism.

As fantastic animals of the sea, they were, in early Buddhism, supposed to safely bring the souls of dead people to Paradise beyond the waters. These motifs were later adopted in Indian art, where they influenced the depiction of the Indian monster makara, Varuna's mount.

Kushan contribution

An early Mahayana Buddhist triad. From left to right, a Kushan devotee, the Bodhisattva Maitreya, the Buddha, the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, and a Buddhist monk. from the 2nd-3rd century AD
An early Mahayana Buddhist triad. From left to right, a Kushan devotee, the Bodhisattva Maitreya, the Buddha, the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, and a Buddhist monk. 2nd-3rd century AD, Gandhara.
A Buddhist coin of Kanishka I, with "Boddo" (=Buddha) in Greek script.

The later part of Greco-Buddhist art in northwestern India is usually associated with the Kushan Empire. The Kushans were nomadic people who started migrating from the Tarim Basin in Central Asia from around 170 BC and ended up founding an empire in northwestern India from the 2nd century BC. After conquering the lands once inhabited by Greco-Bactrians and Indo-Greeks, the Kushan Empire adopted Greco-Buddhist art.

Southern influences

Art of the Shunga

Balustrade-holding Yaksh with Corinthian columns, from Madhya Pradesh
Balustrade-holding Yaksa with Corinthian columns, Madhya Pradesh (?), Shunga period (2nd-1st century BC). Musee Guimet.
Indian relief of possible Indo-Greek king, with Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword
Indian relief of probable Indo-Greek king, with Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. Bharhut, 2nd century BC. Indian Museum, Calcutta.

Examples of the influence of Hellenistic or Greco-Buddhist art on the art of the Shunga Empire (183-73 BC) are usually faint. The main religion, at least at the beginning, seems to have been Brahmanic Hinduism, although some late Buddhist realizations in Madhya Pradesh as also known, such as some architectural expansions that were done at the stupas of Sanchi and Bharhut, originally started under King Ashoka.

Art of Mathura

The Bodhisattva Maitreya, 2nd century,
The Bodhisattva Maitreya, 2nd century, Mathura.
stone fragment A Bodhisattva, 2nd century, Mathura
A Bodhisattva, 2nd century, Mathura

The representations of the Buddha in Mathura, in central northern India, are generally dated slightly later than those of Gandhara, although not without debate, and are also much less numerous. Up to that point, Indian Buddhist art had essentially been aniconic, avoiding representation of the Buddha, except for his symbols, such as the wheel or the Bodhi tree, although some archaic Mathuran sculptural representation of Yaksas (earth divinities) have been dated to the 1st century BC. Even these Yaksas indicate some Hellenistic influence, possibly dating back to the occupation of Mathura by the Indo-Greeks during the 2nd century BC.

In terms of artistic predispositions for the first representations of the Buddha, Greek art provided a very natural and centuries-old background for an anthropomorphic representation of a divinity, while on the contrary "there was nothing in earlier Indian statuary to suggest such a treatment of form or dress, and the Hindu pantheon provided no adequate model for an aristocratic and wholly human deity" (Boardman).

Greek scroll supported by Indian Yaksas
Greek scroll supported by Indian Yaksas, Amaravati, 3rd century AD

The Mathura sculptures incorporate many Hellenistic elements, such as the general idealistic realism, and key design elements such as the curly hair, and folded garment. Specific Mathuran adaptations tend to reflect warmer climatic conditions, as they consist in a higher fluidity of the clothing, which progressively tend to cover only one shoulder instead of both. Also, facial types also tend to become more Indianized. Banerjee in Hellenism in ancient India describes "the mixed character of the Mathura School in which we find on the one hand, a direct continuation of the old Indian art of Bharhut and Sanchi and on the other hand, the classical influence derived from Gandhara".

The influence of Greek art can be felt beyond Mathura, as far as Amaravati on the East coast of India, as shown by the usage of Greek scrolls in combination with Indian deities. Other motifs such as Greek chariots pulled by four horses can also be found in the same area.

Incidentally, Hindu art started to develop from the 1st to the 2nd century AD and found its first inspiration in the Buddhist art of Mathura. It progressively incorporated a profusion of original Hindu stylistic and symbolic elements however, in contrast with the general balance and simplicity of Buddhist art.

The art of Mathura features frequent sexual imagery. Female images with bare breasts, nude below the waist, displaying labia and female genitalia are common. These images are more sexually explicit than those of earlier or later periods.

Arts of Western India

A terracotta head of Buddha Shakyamuni, inspired by Greco-Buddhist art, Devnimori, Gujarat (375-400 CE).
The Buddha in long, heavy robe, a design derived from the art of Gandhara, Ajanta Caves, 5th century CE.[18]

It has been suggested that the art of Devnimori in Gujarat, dated to the 4th century CE, represented a Western Indian artistic tradition, based on the influence of the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, that was anterior to the rise of Gupta Empire art, and that it may have influenced it, and have influenced the art of the Ajanta Caves, Sarnath and other places from the 5th century onward.[19] Devnimori may also have received some influence from Mathura art.[19] At Ajanta, some connections with the art of Gandhara can be noted, and there is evidence of a shared artistic idiom.[20]

The site of Devnimori included numerous terracotta Buddhist sculptures (but no stone sculptures), which are among the earliest sculptures that can be found in Gujarat.[21] The style is clearly influenced by the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara.[22]

The Indo-Scythian Western Satraps (1st century CE-405 CE) may have played a role in the transmission of the art of Gandhara to the western Deccan region, as may also have the southern expansion of the Alchon Huns in the 6th-7th century.[20]

Art of the Gupta

Buddha of the Gupta Empire
Buddha of the Gupta period, 5th century, Mathura.
large stone Head of a Buddha, Gupta period, 6th century.
Head of a Buddha, Gupta period, 6th century.

The art of Mathura acquired progressively more Indian elements and reached a very high sophistication during the Gupta Empire, between the 4th and the 6th century AD. The art of the Gupta is considered as the pinnacle of Indian Buddhist art.

Hellenistic elements are still clearly visible in the purity of the statuary and the folds of the clothing, but are improved upon with a very delicate rendering of the draping and a sort of radiance reinforced by the usage of pink sandstone.

Artistic details tend to be less realistic, as seen in the symbolic shell-like curls used to render the hairstyle of the Buddha.

Expansion in Central Asia

Greco-Buddhist artistic influences naturally followed Buddhism in its expansion to Central and Eastern Asia from the 1st century BC.

Bactria

stone Statue from a Buddhist monastery 700 AD, Afghanistan
Statue from a Buddhist monastery 700 AD, Afghanistan

Bactria was under direct Greek control for more than two centuries from the conquests of Alexander the Great in 332 BC to the end of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom around 125 BC. The art of Bactria was almost perfectly Hellenistic as shown by the archaeological remains of Greco-Bactrian cities such as Alexandria on the Oxus (Ai-Khanoum), or the numismatic art of the Greco-Bactrian kings, often considered as the best of the Hellenistic world, and including the largest silver and gold coins ever minted by the Greeks.

When Buddhism expanded in Central Asia from the 1st century AD, Bactria saw the results of the Greco-Buddhist syncretism arrive on its territory from India, and a new blend of sculptural representation remained until the Islamic invasions.

The most striking of these realizations are the Buddhas of Bamyan. They tend to vary between the 5th and the 9th century AD. Their style is strongly inspired by Hellenistic culture.

In another area of Bactria called Fondukistan, some Greco-Buddhist art survived until the 7th century in Buddhist monasteries, displaying a strong Hellenistic influence combined with Indian decorativeness and mannerism, and some influence by the Sasanid Persians.

Most of the remaining art of Bactria was destroyed from the 5th century onward: the Buddhists were often blamed for idolatry and tended to be persecuted by the iconoclastic Muslims. Destructions continued during the Afghanistan War, and especially by the Taliban regime in 2001. The most famous case is that of the destruction of the Buddhas of Bamyan. Ironically, most of the remaining art from Afghanistan still extant was removed from the country during the Colonial period. In particular, a rich collection exists at the Musee Guimet in France.

Tarim Basin

terracotta Head of a Bodhisattva, 6th-7th century Tumshuq
Head of a Bodhisattva, 6th-7th century terracotta, Tumshuq (Xinjiang).
three terracotta figures "Heroic gesture of the Bodhisattva", 6th-7th century
"Heroic gesture of the Bodhisattva", 6th-7th century terracotta, Tumshuq (Xinjiang).

The art of the Tarim Basin, also called Serindian art, is the art that developed from the 2nd through the 11th century AD in Serindia or Xinjiang, the western region of China that forms part of Central Asia. It derives from the art of the Gandhara and clearly combines Indian traditions with Greek and Roman influences.

Buddhist missionaries travelling on the Silk Road introduced this art, along with Buddhism itself, into Serindia, where it mixed with Chinese and Persian influences.

Influences in Eastern Asia

The arts of China, Korea and Japan adopted Greco-Buddhist artistic influences, but tended to add many local elements as well. What remains most readily identifiable from Greco-Buddhist art are:

  • The general idealistic realism of the figures reminiscent of Greek art.
  • Clothing elements with elaborate Greek-style folds.
  • The curly hairstyle characteristic of the Mediterranean.
  • In some Buddhist representations, hovering winged figures holding a wreath.
  • Greek sculptural elements such as vines and floral scrolls.

China

bronze Northern Wei Buddha Maitreya, AD 443
Northern Wei Buddha Maitreya, AD 443.

Greco-Buddhist artistic elements can be traced in Chinese Buddhist art, with several local and temporal variations depending on the character of the various dynasties that adopted the Buddhist faith. Some of the earliest known Buddhist artifacts found in China are small statues on "money trees", dated circa AD 200, in typical Gandharan style: "That the imported images accompanying the newly arrived doctrine came from Gandhara is strongly suggested by such early Gandhara characteristics on this "money tree" Buddha as the high ushnisha, vertical arrangement of the hair, moustache, symmetrically looped robe and parallel incisions for the folds of the arms."[23]

Some Northern Wei statues can be quite reminiscent of Gandharan standing Buddha, although in a slightly more symbolic style. The general attitude and rendering of the dress however remain. Other, like Northern Qi Dynasty statues also maintain the general Greco-Buddhist style, but with less realism and stronger symbolic elements.

Some Eastern Wei statues display Buddhas with elaborate Greek-style robe foldings, and surmounted by flying figures holding a wreath.

Japan

The Buddha, Asuka period, 7th century.
The Buddha, Asuka period, 7th century.
large bronze Buddha in Kamakura, Kanagawa from 1252
A Buddha in Kamakura (1252), reminiscent of Greco-Buddhist influences.

In Japan, Buddhist art started to develop as the country converted to Buddhism in AD 548. Some tiles from the Asuka period, the first period following the conversion of the country to Buddhism, display a strikingly classical style, with ample Hellenistic dress and realistically rendered body shape characteristic of Greco-Buddhist art.

Other works of art incorporated a variety of Chinese and Korean influences, so that Japanese Buddhist became extremely varied in its expression. Many elements of Greco-Buddhist art remain to this day however, such as the Hercules inspiration behind the Nio guardian deities in front of Japanese Buddhist temples, or representations of the Buddha reminiscent of Greek art such as the Buddha in Kamakura.[24]

Iconographical evolution of the Wind God Left: Greek wind god from Hadda, Afghanistan 2nd century. Middle: wind god from Kizil Caves, 7th century Right: Japanese wind god Fūjin, 17th century.
Iconographical evolution of the Wind God.
Left: Greek wind god from Hadda, 2nd century.
Middle: wind god from Kizil, Tarim Basin, 7th century.
Right: Japanese wind god Fujin, 17th century.

Various other Greco-Buddhist artistic influences can be found in the Japanese Buddhist pantheon, the most striking of which being that of the Japanese wind god Fujin. In consistency with Greek iconography for the wind god Boreas, the Japanese wind god holds above his head with his two hands a draping or "wind bag" in the same general attitude.[25] The abundance of hair have been kept in the Japanese rendering, as well as exaggerated facial features.

Iconographical evolution from the Greek god Herakles to the Japanese god Shukongōshin
Iconographical evolution from the Greek god Herakles to the Japanese god Shukongōshin. From left to right:
1) Herakles (Louvre Museum).
2) Herakles on coin of Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius I.
3) Vajrapani, the protector of the Buddha, depicted as Herakles in the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara.
4) Shukongōshin, manifestation of Vajrapani, as protector deity of Buddhist temples in Japan.

Another Buddhist deity, named Shukongoshin, one of the wrath-filled protector deities of Buddhist temples in Japan, is also an interesting case of transmission of the image of the famous Greek god Herakles to the Far-East along the Silk Road. Herakles was used in Greco-Buddhist art to represent Vajrapani, the protector of the Buddha, and his representation was then used in China and Japan to depict the protector gods of Buddhist temples.[26]

Temple tile fragments from Nara, Nara
Temple tiles from Nara, 7th century.
tile fragment Vine and grape scrolls from Nara, 7th century
Vine and grape scrolls from Nara, 7th century.

Finally, the artistic inspiration from Greek floral scrolls is found quite literally in the decoration of Japanese roof tiles, one of the only remaining elements of wooden architecture to have survived the centuries. The clearest ones are from 7th century Nara temple building tiles, some of them exactly depicting vines and grapes. These motifs have evolved towards more symbolic representations, but essentially remain to this day in many Japanese traditional buildings.[27]

Influences on South-East Asian art

Bodhisattva Lokesvara, Cambodia
Bodhisattva Lokesvara, Cambodia 12th century.
Avalokiteshvara on the wall of Plaosan temple, Java
Avalokiteshvara on the wall of Plaosan temple, Javanese Sailendran art, 9th century.

The Indian civilization proved very influential on the cultures of South-East Asia. Most countries adopted Indian writing and culture, together with Hinduism and Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism.

The influence of Greco-Buddhist art is still visible in most of the representation of the Buddha in South-East Asia, through their idealism, realism and details of dress, although they tend to intermix with Indian Hindu art, and they progressively acquire more local elements.

Cultural significance

Beyond stylistic elements which spread throughout Asia for close to a millennium, the main contribution of Greco-Buddhist art to the Buddhist faith may be in the Greek-inspired idealistic realism which helped describe in a visual and immediately understandable manner the state of personal bliss and enlightenment proposed by Buddhism. The communication of deeply human approach of the Buddhist faith, and its accessibility to all have probably benefited from the Greco-Buddhist artistic syncretism.[according to whom?]

Museums

Major collections

Small collections

Private collections

  • Collection de Marteau, Brussels, Belgium.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Greek Gods in the East, Stančo, Ladislav, Charles University in Prague, Karolinum Press, 2012 p.167
  2. ^ "Gandhara palette: The so-called palettes or 'toilet trays' of the late second century BC and the first century AD depicting Classical scenes" in The Monuments of Afghanistan: History, Archaeology and Architecture, Warwick Ball, I. B. Tauris, 2008, p.115
  3. ^ "There is evidence of Hellensitic sculptors being in touch with Sanchi and Bharhut" in The Buddha Image: Its Origin and Development, Yuvraj Krishan, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1996, p.9
  4. ^ a b c The Buddha Image: Its Origin and Development, Yuvraj Krishan, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1996, p.17-18 Note 3
  5. ^ Ancient Indian History and Civilization, Sailendra Nath Sen, New Age International, 1999 p.170
  6. ^ a b c d An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology, by Amalananda Ghosh, BRILL p.295
  7. ^ a b c Buddhist Architecture Huu Phuoc Le Grafikol, 2010 p.161
  8. ^ a b c d Buddhist Landscapes in Central India: Sanchi Hill and Archaeologies of Religious and Social Change, C. Third Century BC to Fifth Century AD, by Julia Shaw, Left Coast Press, 2013 p.90
  9. ^ Buddhist Landscapes in Central India: Sanchi Hill and Archaeologies of Religious and Social Change, C. Third Century BC to Fifth Century AD, Julia Shaw, Left Coast Press, 2013 p.88ff
  10. ^ An Indian Statuette From Pompeii, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, in Artibus Asiae, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950) p.171
  11. ^ a b The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity, John Boardman, Princeton University Press, p.115
  12. ^ a b "These little balusters are of considerable interest, as their sculptured statues are much superior in artistic design and execution to those of the railing pillars. They are further remarkable in having Arian letters engraved on their bases or capitals, a peculiarity which points unmistakably to the employment of Western artists, and which fully accounts for the superiority of their execution. The letters found are p, s, a, and b, of which the first three occur twice. Now, if the same sculptors had been employed on the railings, we might confidently expect to find the same alphabetical letters used as private marks. But the fact is just the reverse, for the whole of the 27 marks found on any portions of the railing are Indian letters. The only conclusion that I can come to from these facts is that the foreign artists who were employed on the sculptures of the gateways were certainly not engaged on any part of the railing. I conclude, therefore, that the Raja of Sungas, the donor of the gateways, must have sent his own party of workmen to make them, while the smaller gifts of pillars and rails were executed by the local artists." in The stūpa of Bharhut: a Buddhist monument ornamented with numerous sculptures illustrative of Buddhist legend and history in the third century B. C, by Alexander Cunningham p. 8 (Public Domain)
  13. ^ a b Buddhist Architecture, Huu Phuoc Le, Grafikol, 2010 p.149ff
  14. ^ Ashoka: The Search for India's Lost Emperor, Charles Allen, Hachette UK, 2012 p.122
  15. ^ Buddhist Architecture by Huu Phuoc Le p.161
  16. ^ Vajrapani-Herakles:Image
  17. ^ "The origin of the image of Vajrapani should be explained. This deity is the protector and guide of the Buddha Sakyamuni. His image was modelled after that of Hercules. (...) The Gandharan Vajrapani was transformed in Central Asia and China and afterwards transmitted to Japan, where it exerted stylistic influences on the wrestler-like statues of the Guardian Deities (Nio)." (Katsumi Tanabe, "Alexander the Great, East-West cultural contacts from Greece to Japan", p23)
  18. ^ The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, Volume 4 1981 Number I An Exceptional Group of Painted Buddha Figures at Ajanṭā
  19. ^ a b Schastok, Sara L. (1985). The Śāmalājī Sculptures and 6th Century Art in Western India. BRILL. pp. 28–31. ISBN 9004069410.
  20. ^ a b Brancaccio, Pia (2010). The Buddhist Caves at Aurangabad: Transformations in Art and Religion. BRILL. p. 107. ISBN 9004185259.
  21. ^ Schastok, Sara L. (1985). The Śāmalājī Sculptures and 6th Century Art in Western India. BRILL. pp. 24–27. ISBN 9004069410.
  22. ^ The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, Volume 4 1981 Number I An Exceptional Group of Painted Buddha Figures at Ajanṭā, p.97 and Note 2
  23. ^ "Crossroads of Asia" p209
  24. ^ "Needless to say, the influence of Greek art on Japanese Buddhist art, via the Buddhist art of Gandhara and India, was already partly known in, for example, the comparison of the wavy drapery of the Buddha images, in what was, originally, a typical Greek style" (Katsumi Tanabe, "Alexander the Great, East-West cultural contacts from Greece to Japan", p19)
  25. ^ "The Japanese wind god images do not belong to a separate tradition apart from that of their Western counter-parts but share the same origins. (...) One of the characteristics of these Far Eastern wind god images is the wind bag held by this god with both hands, the origin of which can be traced back to the shawl or mantle worn by Boreas/ Oado." (Katsumi Tanabe, "Alexander the Great, East-West cultural contacts from Greece to Japan", p21)
  26. ^ "The origin of the image of Vajrapani should be explained. This deity is the protector and guide of the Buddha Sakyamuni. His image was modelled after that of Hercules. (...) The Gandharan Vajrapani was transformed in Central Asia and China and afterwards transmitted to Japan, where it exerted stylistic influences on the wrestler-like statues of the Guardian Deities (Nio)." (Katsumi Tanabe, "Alexander the Great, East-West cultural contacts from Greece to Japan", p23)
  27. ^ The transmission of the floral scroll pattern from West to East is presented in the regular exhibition of Ancient Japanese Art, at the Tokyo National Museum.
  28. ^ "Musee Guimet and the Greek Buddhas of Gandhara". Minor Sights. 6 April 2014. Retrieved 2015-04-30.

References

  • Richard Foltz, Religions of the Silk Road 2nd edition (Palgrave Macmilla, 2010) ISBN 978-0-230-62125-1
  • John Boardman, The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity (Princeton University Press, 1994) ISBN 0-691-03680-2
  • Gauranga Nath Banerjee, Hellenism in ancient India (Delhi: Munshi Ram Manohar Lal., 1961) ISBN 0-8364-2910-9
  • Jerry H. Bentley, Old World Encounters. Cross-cultural contacts and exchanges in pre-modern times (Oxford University Press, 1993) ISBN 0-19-507639-7
  • Alexander the Great: East-West Cultural contacts from Greece to Japan (NHK and Tokyo National Museum, 2003)
  • W.W. Tarn, The Greeks in Bactria and India Cambridge University Press
  • Robert Linssen, Living Zen (Grove Press New York, 1958) ISBN 0-8021-3136-0
  • Marian Wenzel, Echoes of Alexander the Great: Silk route portraits from Gandhara (Eklisa Anstalt, 2000) ISBN 1-58886-014-0
  • The Crossroads of Asia. Transformation in Image and Symbol, 1992, ISBN 0-9518399-1-8
  • Sir John Marshall, The Buddhist art of Gandhara, 1960, ISBN 81-215-0967-X

Further reading

Timeline and influence of Greco-Buddhist art
Periods Northern Asia Central Asia Gandhara India Southeast Asia
5th century BCE Birth of Buddhism
Dharma wheel 1.png
4th century BCE Occupation by
Alexander the Great (330 BCE)
3rd-2nd century BCE Seleucid Empire
(300-250BCE)

----------
Greco-Bactrian kingdom
(250-125 BCE)
(Hellenistic art)

Tetradrachm Eukratides.jpg

Mauryan Empire
(321-185 BCE)
(Aniconic art)

MauryanCoin.JPG
AsokaKandahar.jpg

Introduction of Buddhism to Myanmar
2nd-1st century BCE China, Han dynasty
First mention of Buddhist statues brought from Central Asia (120 BCE)

HanWudiBuddhas.jpg

Indo-Greek kingdom
(180 BCE-10 CE)
Buddhist symbolism and proselytism

DemetriusCoin.jpg MenanderChakra.jpg Free-standing Buddhas
(Foucher &al.)
Gandhara Buddha (tnm).jpeg BuddhaHead.JPG

Shunga Empire
(185-73 BCE)

SungaAtalante.JPG GreekKing(Drawing).jpg

1st century BCE Yuezhi
Nomadic invaders, who became Hellenized and propagated Buddhism
Indo-Scythians
(80-20 CE)


MathuraLionCapital.JPG
BimaranCasket2.JPG
Coin of Maues.jpg

1st century CE Official start of Buddhism in China. Arrival of statues of the Buddha in 70 CE. Indo-Parthians

Gondophares.jpg GandharaDonorFrieze2.JPG

Art of Mathura

MathuraBuddha.JPG

1st-3rd century CE
First known Buddha statues in China (later Han, c.200 CE)
Kushan Empire
(10-350 CE)

BuddhistTriad.JPG MaitreyaSeated.JPG Kushan, Brahma, Indra, Indian.JPG

4th-6th century CE Tarim Basin
SerindianGroup.jpg SerindiaHead.JPG
China
NorthernWeiMaitreya.JPGEasternWeiBuddha.JPG
Start of Buddhism in Japan
Bactria
GBA1(trimmed).jpg
Gupta Empire
(320-550 CE)

Silver Coin of Kumaragupta I.jpg GuptaBuddha.jpg MathuraBuddhaHead.JPG

Mahayana Buddhism in Siam, Cambodia and Vietnam
7th-13th century CE Japan
AsukaSeatedBuddha.jpgKamakura Budda Daibutsu front 1885.jpg
Islamic invasions Pala Empire
(11th century)
IndianBuddha11.JPG
Southeast Asia
MonWheel.jpg
Bodhisattva Lokesvara statue.jpg
Introduction of Theravada from Sri Lanka in the 11th century