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Greater Malang

Greater Malang
Malang cityscape at dusk
Malang cityscape at dusk
Coordinates: 8°00′S 112°37′E / 8.000°S 112.617°E / -8.000; 112.617
Country Indonesia
Province East Java
Principal cities
Satellite subregions
Area
 • Total3,882.44 km2 (1,499.02 sq mi)
Population
 (2017 estimate)
 • Total3,642,007
 • Density940/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Arek Malang or Arema[1]
Time zoneUTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
Area code(+62) 341
Vehicle signN
Highest elevation 3,676 m/12,060 ft (Semeru, in Malang Regency)

Greater Malang (Indonesian: Malang Raya) or Malang metropolitan area is a region in East Java, Indonesia, encompassing the municipality of Malang. Over 3 million people in East Java came from Greater Malang. The principal city, Malang is well-known as home of notable universities in Indonesia,[2] and its suburb, Batu is well-known as tourism center in East Java.[3]

History

Karesidenan Malang

In Dutch colonial era, Greater Malang was an residency, old form of second subdivision, called Karesidenan Malang (Malang Residency), consists of 4 cities (Malang, Batu, Pasuruan, Probolinggo) and 4 regencies (Malang Regency, Pasuruan Regency, Probolinggo Regency, Lumajang Regency).[4][5] But now, the definition of Greater Malang is just consists to almost covered of Malang highlands area, namely Malang, Batu, and Malang Regency.[6]

Demography

Administrative

division

Area

(km2)

Population

(2010 census)

Population

(2017 estimate)

Density/km2

(2017)

Malang City 145.28 822,201 861,414 5,929
Batu City 202.3 190,806 203,997 1,008
Malang Regency 3,534.86 2,451,997 2,576,596 728
Greater Malang 3,882.44 3,465,004 3,642,007 938

Sources:

Geography

Greater Malang is located in middle of East Java, and eastern part of the metropolitan included the Eastern Salient of Java region. The metropolitan covered over 3,000 km2.

The eastern section of Greater Malang, among Java's most rugged, isolated the eastern salient from Java's central heartland to its west.[8] The Tengger massif (including Mount Bromo), and Mount Semeru, Java's highest peak, lie in this section.[8] The western area of metropolitan also has mountainous area, including Arjuno-Welirang and Kawi-Butak. However, on southern side of Greater Malang is just lower elevation plain with southern coast bordering Indian ocean and small karst hills below 1000 meters.[9]

Climate

With almost of the metropolitan area are plateau or highlands (except the southern area), the climate of Greater Malang is milder than the rest of Indonesia. In middle of year, mountainous area of Greater Malang over 2000 meters above sea level, is dry winter with light snow and frost, which means the temperature always below zero celsius during late night until morning, especially the light snow is commonly visible in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park.[10]

Climate data for Malang, East Java, Indonesia (elevation 450 m or 1,480 ft)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 28.5
(83.3)
28.5
(83.3)
28.5
(83.3)
28.7
(83.7)
29.0
(84.2)
28.8
(83.8)
28.4
(83.1)
29.3
(84.7)
29.8
(85.6)
30.2
(86.4)
29.5
(85.1)
28.5
(83.3)
29.0
(84.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.0
(75.2)
24.1
(75.4)
24.0
(75.2)
24.0
(75.2)
23.9
(75.0)
23.2
(73.8)
22.4
(72.3)
23.2
(73.8)
23.6
(74.5)
24.3
(75.7)
24.3
(75.7)
23.8
(74.8)
23.7
(74.7)
Average low °C (°F) 19.6
(67.3)
19.7
(67.5)
19.5
(67.1)
19.3
(66.7)
18.9
(66.0)
17.7
(63.9)
16.5
(61.7)
17.1
(62.8)
17.5
(63.5)
18.5
(65.3)
19.2
(66.6)
19.1
(66.4)
18.5
(65.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 334
(13.1)
307
(12.1)
292
(11.5)
173
(6.8)
132
(5.2)
77
(3.0)
47
(1.9)
26
(1.0)
43
(1.7)
106
(4.2)
225
(8.9)
326
(12.8)
2,088
(82.2)
Average relative humidity (%) 81.7 82.3 82.2 79.2 79.8 77.3 75.1 72.9 70.9 70.9 74.4 79.1 77.1
Source #1: Climate-Data.org (temp & precip)[11]
Source #2: Weatherbase (humidity)[12]

According to Köppen-Geiger climate classification, the climate of Malang city is tropical monsoon (Am).

Climate data for Tulungrejo, Bumiaji, Batu (elevation 1,200 m or 3,900 ft)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 21.4
(70.5)
21.6
(70.9)
21.6
(70.9)
21.5
(70.7)
21.5
(70.7)
21.2
(70.2)
20.7
(69.3)
21
(70)
21.8
(71.2)
22.2
(72.0)
21.8
(71.2)
21.5
(70.7)
21.5
(70.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.6
(63.7)
17.7
(63.9)
17.8
(64.0)
17.8
(64.0)
17.3
(63.1)
16.9
(62.4)
16.1
(61.0)
16.2
(61.2)
16.9
(62.4)
17.6
(63.7)
17.9
(64.2)
17.6
(63.7)
17.3
(63.1)
Average low °C (°F) 13.9
(57.0)
13.9
(57.0)
14.1
(57.4)
13.6
(56.5)
13.2
(55.8)
12.6
(54.7)
11.5
(52.7)
11.4
(52.5)
12
(54)
13.1
(55.6)
14
(57)
13.8
(56.8)
13.1
(55.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 406
(16.0)
353
(13.9)
395
(15.6)
242
(9.5)
176
(6.9)
81
(3.2)
52
(2.0)
35
(1.4)
46
(1.8)
130
(5.1)
282
(11.1)
385
(15.2)
2,583
(101.7)
Average relative humidity (%) 81.7 82.3 82.2 79.2 79.8 77.3 75.1 72.9 70.9 70.9 74.4 79.1 77.1
Source #1: Climate-Data.org (temp & precip)[13]
Source #2: Weatherbase (humidity)[14]
Climate data for Ngadas, Malang Regency (elevation 2,071 m or 6,795 ft)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 18.3
(64.9)
18.4
(65.1)
18.6
(65.5)
18.3
(64.9)
18.2
(64.8)
17.8
(64.0)
17.2
(63.0)
17.3
(63.1)
18
(64)
18.5
(65.3)
18.3
(64.9)
18.2
(64.8)
18.1
(64.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.6
(58.3)
14.6
(58.3)
14.9
(58.8)
14.4
(57.9)
14.1
(57.4)
13.6
(56.5)
12.7
(54.9)
12.7
(54.9)
13.4
(56.1)
14.1
(57.4)
14.6
(58.3)
14.5
(58.1)
14.0
(57.2)
Average low °C (°F) 10.9
(51.6)
10.8
(51.4)
11.2
(52.2)
10.6
(51.1)
10.1
(50.2)
9.4
(48.9)
8.2
(46.8)
8.2
(46.8)
8.8
(47.8)
9.8
(49.6)
11
(52)
10.9
(51.6)
10.0
(50.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 297
(11.7)
328
(12.9)
347
(13.7)
182
(7.2)
108
(4.3)
63
(2.5)
31
(1.2)
15
(0.6)
20
(0.8)
79
(3.1)
159
(6.3)
319
(12.6)
1,948
(76.9)
Source: Climate-Data.org (temp & precip)[15]

According to Köppen-Geiger climate classification, the climate of Batu city and Upper Greater Malang over 1000 meters above sea level classified as subtropical highland variety(Cwb).

Panoramas

Panorama view of Malang city with Arjuno-Welirang and Kawi Butak mountains covered by Cumulonimbus cloud in January 2019.
View of Batu from Gunung Banyak

See also

References

  1. ^ "Arti kata Arema - Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (KBBI) Online". artikata.simomot.com. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  2. ^ "Malang - Merdeka.com | Malang sebagai kota pendidikan sejak masa Hindia Belanda". malang.merdeka.com. Retrieved 2019-04-24.
  3. ^ Pemerintah Kota Batu. "Sejarah Kota Batu". batukota.go.id. Retrieved 2019-04-24.
  4. ^ "Sejarah Kota Malang (3) Kota Kolonial Berawal dari Loji". Cendana News (in Indonesian). 2017-01-13. Retrieved 2019-04-24.
  5. ^ nGalamediaLABS. "Pemerintahan Karesidenan Malang Pada Masa Perang Kemerdekaan". ngalam.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2019-04-24.
  6. ^ "Mengetahui Secara Ringkas Tentang Malang Raya". Dare to Start (in Indonesian). 2015-01-26. Retrieved 2019-04-24.
  7. ^ Statistics Indonesia. "Jumlah Penduduk dan Laju Pertumbuhan Penduduk Menurut Kabupaten/Kota di Provinsi Jawa Timur, 2010, 2016 dan 2017". jatim.bps.go.id (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 2019-04-24. Retrieved 2019-04-24.
  8. ^ a b Hefner, Robert W. (1990-02-13). Hindu Javanese: Tengger Tradition and Islam. Princeton University Press. pp. 6, 23. ISBN 9780691028569.
  9. ^ Mega, Sophia (2016-11-30). "Mengenal Lebih Dekat Kondisi Geografis Malang". Ngalam.co (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2019-04-25.
  10. ^ Rofiq, M. "Brrr.....Kawasan Bromo Membeku, Embun Salju Selimuti Dedaunan". detiknews. Retrieved 2019-04-25.
  11. ^ "Climate: Malang". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  12. ^ "MALANG, INDONESIA". Weatherbase. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  13. ^ "Climate: Tulungrejo, Bumiaji, Batu City". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  14. ^ "BATU, INDONESIA". Weatherbase. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  15. ^ "Climate: Ngadas, Malang Regency". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 25 April 2019.

External links