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Greater Awyu languages

Greater Awyu
Digul River
Geographic
distribution
New Guinea
Linguistic classificationTrans–New Guinea
Subdivisions
  • Awyu–Dumut
  • Becking–Dawi
  • Sawi
Glottologgrea1275[2]
Awyu-Dumut languages.svg
Map: The Awyu–Dumut languages of New Guinea
  The Awyu–Dumut languages (other languages not shown)
  Other Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages
  Uninhabited

The Greater Awyu languages, known in earlier and more limited classifications as Awyu–Dumut or Awyu–Ndumut, and also known by the geographical label of Digul River languages, are a family of perhaps a dozen Trans–New Guinea languages spoken in eastern West Papua. Six of the languages are sufficiently attested for a basic description; it is not clear how many of the additional names (in parentheses below) may be separate languages.

History

The Awyu (pronounced like English Ow you) and Awyu–Dumut families were identified by Peter Drabbe in the 1950s.

Voorhoeve included them in his proposed Central and South New Guinea group.[3] As part of Central and South New Guinea, they form part of the original proposal for Trans–New Guinea.[4]

Classification

The classification below is based on Usher[5] and de Vries et al. (2012),[6] who used morphological innovations to determine relatedness, as these can be obscured by loans.

Sawi is classified on pronominal data, as the morphological data used for the rest of the family is not available.

Various other languages can be found in the literature. Ario (Sumagaxe)[7] is listed in Wurm, Foley, etc., but not in the University of Amsterdam survey and has been dropped by Ethnologue. Ethnologue lists a 'Central Awyu', but this is not attested as a distinct language (U. Amsterdam). In general, the names in Ethnologue are quite confused, and older editions speak of names from Wurm (1982), such as Mapi, Kia, Upper Digul, Upper Kaeme, which are names of language surveys along the rivers of those names, and may actually refer to Ok languages rather than to Awyu.

van den Heuvel & Fedden (2014) argue that Greater Awyu and Greater Ok are not genetically related, but that their similarities are due to intensive contact.[8]

Pronouns

The pronouns of the Awyu–Dumut branch are:

sg pl
1 *nu-p *na-gu-p
2 *gu-p *ga-gu-p
3 *e-p, *[n]ege-p, *yu-p *ya-gu-p

The suffix *-p and the change of the final TNG *a vowel to *u do not appear in the possessive pronouns: *na, *ga, *ya/wa, *na-ga, *ga-ga, *ya-ga.

Evolution

Greater Awyu reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea (pTNG) etyma are:[9]

Wambon language:

  • maŋgot ‘teeth, mouth’ < *maŋgat[a]
  • (Wambon S.) kodok ‘leg’ < *k(a,o)ndok[V]
  • mok ‘seed’ < *maŋgV
  • kotay ‘bark, skin’ < *(ŋg,k)a(nd,t)apu
  • kondok ‘bone’ < *kwanjaC
  • kim- ‘die’ < *kumV-
  • kinum- ‘sleep’ < *kin(i,u)-
  • ok ‘water, river’ < *okV
  • enop ‘fire’ < *kendop
  • (ko)sep ‘ashes’ < *(kambu-)sumbu
  • (Wambon N.) kumut ‘thunder’ < *kumut or *tumuk
  • ururuk ko- ‘to fly’ < *pululu

Mandobo Atas language:

  • am ‘breast’ < *amu
  • magot ‘mouth’ < *maŋgat[a]
  • koman ‘neck’ < *k(o,u)ma(n,ŋ)[V]
  • (a)moka ‘cheek’ < *mVkVm ‘cheek, jaw’
  • kere(top) ‘ear’ < *kand(e,i)k(V]
  • betit ‘fingernail’ < *mb(i,u)t(i,u)C
  • kodok ‘foot, leg’ < *k(a,o)ndok[V]
  • otae ‘bark, skin’ < *(ŋg,k)a(nd,t)apu
  • kiow ‘wind’ < *kumbutu
  • komöt ‘thunder’ < *kumut
  • üp ‘name’ < *imbi
  • kinum- ‘sleep’ < *kin(i,u)-
  • (ko)tep ‘ashes’ < *(kambu-)sumbu
  • ok ‘water, river’ < *okV
  • apap ‘butterfly’ < *apa(pa)ta

Pisa language:

  • mugo ‘egg’ < *maŋgV, kiri
  • mogo ‘eye’ < *kiti-maŋgV
  • kifi ‘wind’ < *kumbutu
  • ise ‘mosquito’ < *kasin
  • apero ‘butterfly’ < *apa(pa)ta
  • kunu (ri-) ‘sleep’ < *kin(i,u)-
  • kekuŋ- ‘carry on the shoulder’ < *kak(i,u)-

Syiaxa language:

  • fi ‘name’ < *imbi
  • apa ‘butterfly’ < *apa([pa]pata
  • boro ‘to fly’ < *pululu

Notes

  1. ^ New Guinea World, Digul River – Ok
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Greater Awyu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Voorhoeve, C.L. 1968. “The Central and South New Guinea Phylum: a report on the language situation in south New Guinea. Pacific Linguistics, Series A, No. 16: 1-17. Canberra: Australian National University.
  4. ^ McElhanon, Kenneth A.and C.L. Voorhoeve. 1970. The Trans-New Guinea phylum: explorations in deep-level genetic relationships. Pacific Linguistics, Series B, No. 16. Canberra: Australian National University.
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ Lourens de Vries, Ruth Wester, & Wilco van den Heuvel. 2012. "The Greater Awyu language family of West Papua", pp. 269–312 of Hammarström & van den Heuvel (eds.), History, Contact and Classification of Papuan Languages. (Language and Linguistics in Melanesia Special Issue). Port Moresby: Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea.
  7. ^ Multitree qgz
  8. ^ van den Heuvel, W. & Fedden, S. (2014). Greater Awyu and Greater Ok: Inheritance or Contact? Oceanic Linguistics 53(1), 1-36. University of Hawai'i Press.
  9. ^ Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.

Further reading

  • Proto-Awyu-Dumut. TransNewGuinea.org. From (1) Voorhoeve, C. L. 2000. Proto Awyu-Dumut phonology II. In A. Pawley, M. Ross, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Boy from Bundaberg: studies in Melanesian linguistics in honour of Tom Dutton (pp. 361–381). Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. ; (2) Healey, A. 1970. Proto-Awyu-Dumut Phonology. In Wurm, S.A. and Laycock, D. C. (eds). Pacific Linguistic Studies in honour of Arthur Capell. Pacific Linguistics: Canberra.
  • Proto-Awyu. TransNewGuinea.org. From (1) Voorhoeve, C. L. 2000. Proto Awyu-Dumut phonology II. In A. Pawley, M. Ross, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Boy from Bundaberg: studies in Melanesian linguistics in honour of Tom Dutton (pp. 361–381). Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. ; (2) Healey, A. 1970. Proto-Awyu-Dumut Phonology. In Wurm, S.A. and Laycock, D. C. (eds). Pacific Linguistic Studies in honour of Arthur Capell. Pacific Linguistics: Canberra.
  • Proto-Dumut. TransNewGuinea.org. From (1) Voorhoeve, C. L. 2000. Proto Awyu-Dumut phonology II. In A. Pawley, M. Ross, & D. Tryon (Eds.), The Boy from Bundaberg: studies in Melanesian linguistics in honour of Tom Dutton (pp. 361–381). Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. ; (2) Healey, A. 1970. Proto-Awyu-Dumut Phonology. In Wurm, S.A. and Laycock, D. C. (eds). Pacific Linguistic Studies in honour of Arthur Capell. Pacific Linguistics: Canberra.

References

  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.

External links