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The Great Offices of State in the United Kingdom are the four most senior and prestigious posts in the British government. They are the Prime Minister, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Foreign Secretary and Home Secretary. According to convention, when the Prime Minister names his or her Cabinet, either after a general election or a mid-term reshuffle, the first Cabinet ministers to be announced are the Chancellor, the Foreign Secretary and the Home Secretary.
|Great Offices of State of Her Majesty's Government|
|Office||Officeholder||Took office||Other offices|
|Prime Minister||Boris Johnson||24 July 2019||Foreign Secretary|
|Chancellor of the Exchequer||Sajid Javid||24 July 2019||Home Secretary|
|Foreign Secretary||Dominic Raab||24 July 2019||First Secretary of State|
|Home Secretary||Priti Patel||24 July 2019||International Development Secretary|
The Great Offices of State are derived from the most senior positions in the Royal Household – the Great Officers of State. These eventually became hereditary and honorary titles, while the substantive duties of the Officers passed to individuals who were appointed on behalf of the Crown. The medieval origins of the Chancellorship of the Exchequer make it the oldest surviving Great Office of State, while the position of Secretary of State came into being in the late 16th century and the office of Prime Minister evolved gradually in the 18th and 19th centuries.
James Callaghan is the only person to date to have served in all four positions. In the past hundred years, several other people have come close to achieving this distinction: H. H. Asquith and Winston Churchill both served as Chancellor, Prime Minister and Home Secretary while Harold Macmillan and John Major served as Prime Minister, Chancellor and Foreign Secretary. Rab Butler and Sir John Simon served as Chancellor of the Exchequer, Foreign Secretary and Home Secretary. Two of the Great Offices of State have often been held simultaneously by one person, most recently by Ramsay MacDonald, Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary in 1924; the Duke of Wellington is the only person to have held three of the Great Offices simultaneously, serving as Prime Minister, Home Secretary and Foreign Secretary in the Wellington caretaker ministry.
Owing to the political constitution of the United Kingdom, in which the House of Commons retains most of the power, it is accepted that it is no longer practical for holders of the Great Offices of State to be members of the House of Lords. The House of Lords has traditionally been restrained in the passage of financial bills, meaning that the office of Chancellor is effectively limited to the House of Commons. The last holders of the other positions to have been peers were:
It is most exceptional that a holder of a Great Office of State should not hold a seat in Parliament at all, neither in the Commons nor in the Lords. It occurred briefly in 1963, when Alec Douglas-Home was appointed Prime Minister: he disclaimed his peerage on 23 October, and was not returned to the Commons until a by-election on 7 November. More substantially, Patrick Gordon Walker was appointed Foreign Secretary in 1964 despite not holding a Parliamentary seat, having been defeated in his Smethwick constituency seat in the 1964 general election; he held the post for three months until his resignation in January 1965.
Six women have held one or more Great Offices of State, with four of the six being members of the Conservative Party. Out of the four Offices, three have been held by women; Chancellor of the Exchequer is the only position that has not. Due to her ascension to the office of Prime Minister in July 2016, Theresa May became the first woman to hold two different Great Offices of State, with the appointment of Amber Rudd as Home Secretary resulting in the first period in which more than one of the Offices were held by women simultaneously.
Chancellor of the Exchequer:
No woman has ever served as Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Benjamin Disraeli became the first person of an ethnic minority to attain one of the Great Offices of State when he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1852. Following the resignation of The Earl of Derby in 1868, he also became the first and to date the only person of Jewish heritage to become Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Malcolm Rifkind and David Miliband later held the position of Foreign Secretary, with Michael Howard and Leon Brittan serving as Home Secretary and Nigel Lawson as Chancellor of the Exchequer.
After Amber Rudd's resignation following the Windrush scandal, Sajid Javid became the first person of Pakistani descent to hold a Great Office of State as Home Secretary and later Chancellor of the Exchequer. Priti Patel was appointed as the Home Secretary by Boris Johnson, becoming first woman of ethnic minority to take the position. After her appointment, two ethnic minority ministers held positions of the Great Offices of State simultaneously for the first time.
Benjamin Disraeli (1868, 1874-1880, Jewish Heritage) (Conservative)
Chancellor of the Exchequer:
Benjamin Disraeli (1852, 1858-1859, 1866-1868, Jewish Heritage) (Conservative)
Nigel Lawson (1983-1989, Jewish Heritage) (Conservative)
Sajid Javid (2019 - Present, Pakistani Heritage) (Conservative)
Malcolm Rifkind (1995-1997, Jewish Heritage) (Conservative)
David Miliband (2007-2010, Jewish Heritage) (Labour)
Leon Brittan (1983-1985, Jewish Heritage) (Conservative)
Michael Howard (1993-1997, Jewish Heritage) (Conservative)
Sajid Javid (2017-2019, Pakistani Heritage) (Conservative)
Priti Patel (2019 - Present, Indian Heritage) (Conservative)
He had held all four of the great offices of state