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Gravettian

Gravettian
Two Gravette points, a tool characteristic of the Gravettian
Geographical range Europe
Period Upper Paleolithic
Dates 33,000[1] to 21,000 BP[is this date calibrated?][a]
Type site La Gravette
Major sites Dordogne
Preceded by Aurignacian
Followed by Solutrean, Epigravettian
Defined by Dorothy Garrod, 1938[3]
The Paleolithic
Pliocene (before Homo)
Lower Paleolithic
(c. 3.3 Ma – 300 ka)
Middle Paleolithic
(300–45 ka)
Upper Paleolithic
(50–10 ka)
Mesolithic
Stone Age

The Gravettian was an archaeological industry of the European Upper Paleolithic that succeeded the Aurignacian circa 33,000 years BP.[1][4] It is archaeologically the last European culture many consider unified,[5] and had mostly disappeared by c. 22,000 BP, close to the Last Glacial Maximum, although some elements lasted until c. 17,000 BP.[2] At this point, it was replaced abruptly by the Solutrean in France and Spain, and developed into or continued as the Epigravettian in Italy, the Balkans, Ukraine[6] and Russia.[7]

They are known for their Venus figurines, which were typically made as either ivory or limestone carvings. The Gravettian culture was first identified at the site of La Gravette in Southwestern France.[8]

Gravettian culture

The Gravettians were hunter-gatherers who lived in a bitterly cold period of European prehistory, and Gravettian lifestyle was shaped by the climate. Pleniglacial environmental changes forced them to adapt. West and Central Europe were extremely cold during this period. Archaeologists usually describe two regional variants: the western Gravettian, known mainly from cave sites in France, Spain and Britain, and the eastern Gravettian in Central Europe and Russia. The eastern Gravettians, which include the Pavlovian culture, were specialized mammoth hunters,[8] whose remains are usually found not in caves but in open air sites.

Moravianska Venus

Gravettian culture thrived on their ability to hunt animals. They utilized a variety of tools and hunting strategies. Compared to theorized hunting techniques of Neanderthals and earlier human groups, Gravettian hunting culture appears much more mobile and complex. They lived in caves or semi-subterranean or rounded dwellings which were typically arranged in small "villages". Gravettians are thought to have been innovative in the development of tools such as blunted black knives, tanged arrowheads and boomerangs.[8] Other innovations include the use of woven nets and stone-lamps.[9] Blades and bladelets were used to make decorations and bone tools from animal remains. Sites including CPM II, CPM III, Casal de Felipe, and Fonte Santa (all in Spain) have evidence the use of blade and bladelet technology during the period. The objects were often made of quartz and rock crystals, and varied in terms of platforms, abrasions, endscrapers and burins. They were formed by hammering bones and rocks together until they formed sharp shards, in a process known as lithic reduction.[10] The blades were used to skin animals or sharpen sticks.

A replica of the Gravettian Venus of Lespugue. The Gravettians produced a large number of Venus figurines

Gravettian culture extends across a large geographic region, but is relatively homogeneous until about 27,000 BN.[11] They developed burial rites,[9] which included the inclusion of simple, purpose built, offerings and or personal ornaments owned by the deceased, placed within the grave or tomb.[12] Surviving Gravettian art includes numerous cave paintings and small, portable Venus figurines figurines made from clay or ivory, as well as jewelry objects. The fertility deities mostly date from the early period, and consist of over 100 known surviving examples. They conform to a very specific physical type of large breasts, broad hips and prominent posteriors. The statuettes tend to lack facial details, with limbs that are often broken off.[11]

During the post glacial period, evidence of the culture begins to disappear from northern Europe but was continued in areas around the Mediterranean.[11]

Diet

Animals were a primary food source for early humans of the Gravettian period.[13] Since Europe was extremely cold during this period, food sources needed to be high in energy and fat content. Testing comparisons among various human remains reveal that populations at higher latitudes placed greater dietary emphasis on meat. A defining trait distinguishing Gravettian people was their ease of mobility compared to their Neanderthal counterparts. Modern humans developed the technology and social organization that enabled them to migrate with their food source whereas Neanderthals were not adept at travelling, even with relatively sedentary herds.[14]

With their ability to move with the herds, Gravettian diets incorporated a huge variety of animal prey. The main factors were the animal's age and size. For example, first year deer offered hides most suitable for clothing, while fourth year deer contained far more meat.[15] Gravettian diet included larger animals such as mammoths, hyenas, wolves, reindeer killed with stone or bone tools, as well as hares and foxes captured with nets.[16] This time period is classified by the strong emphasis on meat consumption because agriculture had not been fully introduced nor utilized. In addition, the climate was not favorable to stable crop cultivation.[13]

Coastal Gravettians were able to avail of marine protein. From remains found in Italy and Wales, carbon dating reveals that 20-30% of Gravettian diets of coastal peoples consisted of sea animals.[17][18] Populations of lower latitudes relied more on shell fish and fish while higher latitudes’ diets consisted of seals.[18]

Hunting

Gravettian burin

Clubs, stones and sticks were the primary hunting tools during the Upper Paleolithic period. Bone, antler and ivory points have all been found at sites in France; but proper stone arrowheads and throwing spears did not appear until the Solutrean period (~20,000 Before Present). Due to the primitive tools, many animals were hunted at close range.[19] The typical artefact of Gravettian industry, once considered diagnostic, is the small pointed blade with a straight blunt back. They are today known as the Gravette point,[20] and were used to hunt big game. Gravettians used nets to hunt small game, and are credited with inventing the bow and arrow.[8]

Gravettian settlers tended towards the valleys that pooled migrating prey.[19] Examples found through discoveries in Gr. La Gala, a site in Southern Italy, show a strategic settlement based in a small valley.[21] As the settlers became more aware of the migration patterns of animals like red deer, they learned that prey herd in valleys, thereby allowing the hunters to avoid travelling long distances for food. Specifically in Gr. La Gala, the glacial topography forced the deer to pass through the areas in the valley occupied by humans.[21] Additional evidence of strategically positioned settlements include sites like Klithi in Greece, also placed to intercept migrating prey.[15]

Discoveries in the Czech Republic suggest that nets were used to capture large numbers of smaller prey, thus offering a quick and consistent food supply and thus an alternative to the feast/famine pattern of large game hunters. Evidence comes in the form of 4 mm thick rope preserved on clay imprints.[16] Research suggests that although no larger net imprints have been discovered, there would be little reason for them not to be made as no further knowledge would be required for their creation.[16] The weaving of nets was likely a communal task, relying on the work of both women and children.[16]

Use of animal remains

Decorations and tools

The Gravettian era landscape is most closely related to the landscape of present-day Moravia. Pavlov I in southern Moravia is the most complete and complex Gravettian site to date, and a perfect model for a general understanding of Gravettian culture. In many instances, animal remains indicate both decorative and utilitarian purposes. In the case of, for example, Arctic foxes, incisors and canines were used for decoration, while their humeri and radii bones were used as tools. Similarly, the skeletons of some red foxes contain decorative incisors and canines as well as ulnas used for awls and barbs.[22]

Some animal bones were only used to create tools. Due to their shape, the ribs, fibulas, and metapodia of horses were good for awl and barb creation. In addition, the ribs were also implemented to create different types of smoothers for pelt preparation. The shapes of hare bones are also unique, and as a result, the ulnas were commonly used as awls and barbs. Reindeer antlers, ulnas, ribs, tibias and teeth were utilised in addition to a rare documented case of a phalanx.[22] Mammoth remnants are among the most common bone remnants of the culture, while long bones and molars are also documented. Some mammoth bones were used for decorative purposes. Wolf remains were often used for tool production and decoration.[22]

See also

Preceded by
Aurignacian
Gravettian
33,000–24,000 cal BP
Succeeded by
Solutrean

Note

  1. ^ The transition to the Epigravettian is not well-defined, and the Gravettian may be extended down to 17,000 years ago with the most inclusive definition, based on anything that may be considered Gravettian (burials, venus statues, lithics)[2]

References

  1. ^ a b Jacobi, R.M.; Higham, T.F.G.; Haesaerts, P.; Jadin, I.; Basell, L.S. (2015). "Radiocarbon chronology for the Early Gravettian of northern Europe: New AMS determinations for Maisières-Canal, Belgium". Antiquity. 84 (323): 26–40. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00099749. 
  2. ^ a b Pesesse, Damien (2013). "Le Gravettien existe-t-il? Le prisme du système technique lithique" [Does the Gravettian exist? The prism of the lithic technical system]. In Marcel Otte. Les Gravettiens. Civilisations et cultures (in French). Paris: Éditions errance. pp. 66–104. ISBN 978-2877725095. D'ailleurs selon les auteurs et les thèmes abordés, la définition et donc les contours du Gravettien varient, parfois considérablement. Tantôt certains ensembles de la plaine russe seront intégrés sur la base des témoignages funéraires, tantôt les statuettes féminines serviront d'argument pour annexer les rives du lac Baïkal à cette supra-entité. De même, le Gravettien débuterait vers 31,000 BP ou 27,000 BP selon les régions pour finir parfois à 22,000 BP, parfois à 17,000 BP. Ce ne sont pas là de menues différences. [Besides, depending on the authors and the subjects at hand, the definition and therefore the borders of the Gravettian vary, sometimes considerably. Sometimes, certain assemblages of the Russian plains are integrated on the basis of funerary customs, other times feminine statuettes are used to annex the shores of Lake Baikal to this supra-entity. Likewise, the Gravettian would start around 31,000 or 27,000 BP depending on the regions and finish sometimes at 22,000 BP, sometimes at 17,000 BP. These are not small differences.] 
  3. ^ Garrod, D. A. E. (2014). "The Upper Palaeolithic in the Light of Recent Discovery". Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. 4 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1017/S0079497X00021113. 
  4. ^ Pike, A. W. G.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Garcia-Diez, M.; Pettitt, P. B.; Alcolea, J.; De Balbin, R.; Gonzalez-Sainz, C.; De Las Heras, C.; Lasheras, J. A.; Montes, R.; Zilhao, J. (2012). "U-Series Dating of Paleolithic Art in 11 Caves in Spain". Science. 336 (6087): 1409–13. Bibcode:2012Sci...336.1409P. doi:10.1126/science.1219957. PMID 22700921. 
  5. ^ Noiret, Pierre (2013). "De quoi Gravettien est-il le nom?" [Gravettian is the name of what?]. In Marcel Otte. Les Gravettiens. Civilisations et cultures (in French). Paris: Éditions errance. pp. 28–64. ISBN 978-2877725095. 
  6. ^ Marquer, L.; Lebreton, V.; Otto, T.; Valladas, H.; Haesaerts, P.; Messager, E.; Nuzhnyi, D.; Péan, S. (2012). "Charcoal scarcity in Epigravettian settlements with mammoth bone dwellings: The taphonomic evidence from Mezhyrich (Ukraine)". Journal of Archaeological Science. 39 (1): 109–20. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2011.09.008. 
  7. ^ Germonpré, Mietje; Sablin, Mikhail; Khlopachev, Gennady Adolfovich; Grigorieva, Galina Vasilievna (2008). "Possible evidence of mammoth hunting during the Epigravettian at Yudinovo, Russian Plain". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 27 (4): 475–92. doi:10.1016/j.jaa.2008.07.003. 
  8. ^ a b c d Kipfer, Barbara Ann. "Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology". Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2000. P. 216. ISBN 978-0-3064-6158-3
  9. ^ a b Bains, Gurnek. "Cultural DNA: The Psychology of Globalization". John Wiley & Sons, 2015. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-1189-2891-2
  10. ^ Marks, Anthony E., Bicho, Nuno, Zilhao, Joao, Ferring, C. R. (1994). "Upper Pleistocene Prehistory in Portuguese Estremadura: Results of Preliminary Research". Journal of Field Archaeology. 21 (1): 53–68. doi:10.2307/530244. JSTOR 530244. 
  11. ^ a b c De Laet, S.J. "History of Humanity: Prehistory and the beginnings of civilization". United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultura, 1994. p. 212. ISBN 978-9-2310-2810-6
  12. ^ Renfrew, Colin. "Death Rituals, Social Order and the Archaeology of Immortality in the Ancient World: 'Death Shall Have No Dominion'". Cambridge University Press, 2018. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-1070-8273-1
  13. ^ a b Schulting, R.J., Trinkaus, E., Higham, T., Hedges, R., Richards, M. & Cardy, B. (1997). "A mid-upper Palaeolithic human humerus from eel point, south Wales, UK". Journal of Human Evolution. 48 (5): 493–505. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2005.02.001. PMID 15857652. 
  14. ^ Holden, C. (2004). "Neandertals and Climate". Science. 303: 759. doi:10.1126/science.303.5659.759a. 
  15. ^ a b Bogucki, P. (1999). The Origins of Human Society. Oxford: Blackwell Publications inc. p. 95. 
  16. ^ a b c d Pringle, H (1997). "Ice Age Communities May Be Earliest Known Net Hunters". Science. 277 (5330): 1203–1204. doi:10.1126/science.277.5330.1203. 
  17. ^ Pettit, P.B., Richards, M., Maggi, R. & Formicola, V (2003). "The Gravettian burial known as the Prince ('Il Principe'): new evidence for his age and diet". Antiquity. 77: 10–20. 
  18. ^ a b Jacobi, R., Richards, M., Cook, J., Pettitt, P.B. & Stringer, C.B. Isotope evidence for the intensive use of marine foods by Late Upper Palaeolithic humans. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  19. ^ a b Straus, L.G. (1993). "Upper Paleolithic Hunting Tactics and Weapons in Western Europe". Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association. University of New Mexico. 4 (1): 83–93. 
  20. ^ Ehrich, Robert W.; Pleslová-Štiková, Emilie. "Aurignacian Lithic Economy: Ecological Perspectives from Southwestern France". Academia, 1968. pp. 37-41
  21. ^ a b Mussi, M. (2001). Earliest Italy: An Overview of the Italian Paleolithic and Mesolithic. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. pp. 250–252. 
  22. ^ a b c Nývltová-Fisáková, M. (2005). "Animal bones selected for tools and decorations". In J. Svoboda. Pavlov I southeast: A window into the gravettian lifestyles. Brno, Czech Republic: Academy of the Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Archaeology. pp. 247–251. 

External links