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The college's Golden Jubilee Gate
|Registration||Indian Medical Council|
|Affiliations||Kerala University of Health Sciences|
The Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram (also known as Thiruvananthapuram Medical College) is in Thiruvananthapuram (the capital of Kerala), India. Founded in 1951, it was dedicated by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and is Kerala's oldest medical college. The college was known in early records as Medical College (of Thiruvananthapuram), since it was the only medical institute in the state at its inception.
Its campus houses several hospitals and institutions in addition to Medical College Hospital (MCH), including the Colleges of Nursing and Pharmaceutical sciences, the Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram Dental College, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, the Priyadarshini Institute of Paramedical Sciences and the Sree Avittom Thirunal Hospital for Women and Children (SAT Hospital). The Regional Institute of Ophthalmology (RIO), also a part of the college, is being upgraded to a national-level independent institute. The School of Optometry is also on campus.
The college is 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from the Thiruvananthapuram Central Railway Station and the KSRTC Central Bus Station. The 324,680-square-metre (80.23-acre) campus and hospital are west of Dr. C. O. Karunakaran Avenue (formerly the Kumarapuram-Ulloor Road). Across from the hospital is the Chalakuzhi road, which meets the NH544 near Pattom. The college is about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from Trivandrum International Airport.
In 1948, the government of Travancore appointed a committee to formulate proposals for a medical college at Thiruvananthapuram. The committee submitted its report and the scheme was sanctioned in October of that year. C. O. Karunakaran was appointed Special Officer for the implementation of the scheme, and was the college's first dean.
The campus was 139 acres (0.56 km2), with hillocks surrounded by evergreen coconut groves and paddy fields and facing the sea, 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from northwestern Thiruvananthapuram city. Its layout and architectural designs were prepared by J. A. Ritchie of Bombay. The college and hospital buildings were separated by playgrounds for football and hockey, a cricket pitch, courts for tennis, basketball, badminton and volleyball, and a 400-meter track.
The foundation stone was laid by Raja Pramukh of Travancore–Cochin at 11:45 am on 26 January 1950, and the first group of students was admitted in August 1951. The college was dedicated by Jawaharlal Nehru at 8:00 am on 27 November 1951. In January 1952, the Sri. Avittom Thirunal Hospital (SATH) was dedicated by Rajkumari Amrit Kaur. A men's hostel opened in 1952, followed by a women's Hostel one year later. The Medical College Hospital was dedicated by Prime Minister Nehru in 1954.
The School of Nursing was dedicated by Sethu Lakshmi Bai in 1954, and was upgraded to a college of nursing in 1963. The cancer wing was dedicated in 1958; after two decades, the Regional Cancer Centre was founded. The dentistry course and the first post-graduate course began in 1959.
The library was established during the 1960s. The limb center and mental and ophthalmic hospitals were brought into the college. During the 1990s the Regional Institute of Ophthalmology was founded. The Sree Chitra Thirunal Centre, the College of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Priya Darshini Institute of Paramedical Sciences were established, and the Silver Jubilee Auditorium was built.
A specialty block, housing the college's medical and surgical specialties, became operational on 1 July 2010. The block was funded by the prime minister's Swasthya Suraksha Yojna scheme and by the Kerala government. The 253-bed, 160,000-square-foot (15,000 m2) specialty block houses the outpatient clinics and inpatient wards of six specialties, eight operating theatres, six 29-bed intensive-care units and dialysis and kidney-transplant units.
It is financed and administrated by the Health and Family welfare Department of the government of Kerala. Although the college was initially affiliated with the University of Kerala, since 2010 it has been affiliated with the Kerala University of Health Sciences.
The college began with departments of anatomy, physiology, biochemistry and bacteriology. Dr. C. O. Karunakaran was the first Principal of the college. The departments were headed by V. Mathew, C. Vareed, Narayana Rao and C. O. Karunakaran, respectively. The department of bacteriology initially consisted of microbiology, pathology and hygiene. During the Asian flu epidemic,[which?] the department was in the forefront of isolating the influenza virus under R. Ananthanarayanan. In 1981, an AIDS surveillance center was established in the department. The Department of Community Medicine, established in 1953, was the first of its kind in India. A primary health centre for field training was established in July 1953 in Cheruvikkal, which was moved to Pangappara in 1964. Intern training was initially conducted at the Indo-Norwegian MCH unit in Neendakara. The department has a regional cell for the prevention of epidemic and infectious diseases. Forensic medicine which was part of community medicine, became a separate entity in 1966 under V. Kanthasamy. Medico-legal autopsies have been performed since 1955, and the department became a state medico-legal institute in 1986. The department of pharmacology later established an experimental pharmacology wing.
The clinical departments of medicine and surgery and the college hospital were established in 1952. Students were initially trained at the general hospital in Thiruvananthapuram. A department of infectious diseases was established in 1983. R. Kesavan Nair, chief surgeon at the general hospital, was appointed professor of surgery and the department of surgery was established. Recognizing the importance of the new specialty of orthopedic surgery, the government of Travancore sent K. I. George of the health services department to the UK for advanced training. George joined the college in 1956, and founded Kerala's first department of orthopedics.
The department of pediatrics, initially under general medicine, has the highest number of patients in Kerala. The obstetrics and gynecology department began in 1954 and was later added to the family-planning clinic contraception testing unit, the WHO training center and the infertility clinic. The department of physical medicine and rehabilitation, established in 1968, pioneered disability management and the treatment of occupational diseases in India.
Specialty departments were established in 1965 with neurosurgery under M. Sambasivan, former president of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies. The department of cardiology was established in 1972, and nephrology in 1981. Medical and surgical gastroenterology units were established in 1972 and 1975, respectively.
In addition to a MBBS programme, postgraduate degree and diploma courses in 22 specialties are offered.
The Medical College Hospital provides comprehensive health care. It is the largest multi-specialty hospital in South Kerala, serving most of the Thiruvananthapuram and Kollam districts and adjacent districts in Tamil Nadu. The hospital includes a main hospital block, trauma care and an outpatient department. The 3,000-bed hospital admits 80,000 patients a year and provides over 7,500,000 outpatient consultations. The outpatient block houses outpatient wings of medical and surgical specialties, a pharmacy and resident and graduate housing. The hospital averages 55 major and 125 minor operations and 35 vaginal deliveries and 15 caesarean sections per day. Bed occupancy is 90 to 95 percent throughout the year. The new multi-speciality block of medical college hospital will be inaugurated soon to provide better treatment facilities.
About 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from the main campus, the Regional Institute of Ophthalmology is near the general hospital in Thiruvananthapuram. It originated as a government ophthalmic hospital in 1905, and was brought into the National Programme for Control of Blindness in 1995. The RIO is directed by P. S. Girija Devi. Postgraduate courses in ophthalmology are offered, and a bachelor's-degree course in optometry is available with an annual intake of 20 students. A BSc.Optometry course began in 2010.
RIO is India's second government institute offering a bachelor's degree in optometry. It hosts an optical outlet (in collaboration with HLL Life Care) and a dispensing facility. Specialized services including retina, paediatric ophthalmology, low vision, cornea and glaucoma clinics, an eye bank, tele-ophthalmology, a uvea clinic, a dispensing lab and contact-lens and cataract clinics. Kerala's first mobile eye hospital, Sunayanam, operates from the RIO.
The School of Optometry is on the RIO campus. A Bachelor of Science (Honours) degree in optometry is affiliated with Kerala University of Health Sciences. GMC Thiruvananthapuram is India's second government institute offering a four-year professional degree course in optometry; the first is All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi.
The first health unit was established in Neendakara as an Indo-Norwegian collaboration. A primary health centre, founded in July 1953 in Cheruvikkal for field practice, was moved to Pangappara in 1964. Rural health centers for student and intern field practice are in Pangappara and Vakkom.
The women's and children's hospital was dedicated in 1952. It was built by the Travancore royal family in memory of Prince Sree Avittom Thirunal, who died at age eight years of rheumatic heart disease. The hospital houses the departments of obstetrics and gynecology and pediatrics. The OB-GYN department administers the postpartum, family-welfare counseling, infertility, trophoblastic, adolescent and vesicular-mole clinics and WHO and Indian Council of Medical Research collaborative study centers. The hospital also provides pediatric care in cardiology, neurology, nephrology, genetics, surgery and psychiatry, and has one of Kerala's highest delivery rates.
The specialty block, dedicated in 2011, houses the nephrology, urology, neurology, neurosurgery and medical and surgical gastroenterology departments and their out- and inpatient wings, and has 40 ICU beds, 25 high-care beds and six modular operating theaters. Cadaver organ retrieval and transplant began in 2012, making it the first government hospital to offer the service on a wide scale.
A team of biomedical engineers and technicians is available at the hospital to maintain its equipment.
The Child Development Centre was established by the government of Kerala for early-child and adolescent care and education, premarital counselling, women’s welfare and related fields. It has contributed to reducing childhood disabilities and developed the Thiruvananthapuram Development Chart, used to assess child development in community settings.
The Mental Health Center in Oolampara is administered by the college. With more than 150 patients, it is India's second-largest mental health center. In addition to treatment facilities, a rehabilitation center has been established with the aid of Hindustan Latex Limited.
The former government tuberculosis sanatorium in Pulayanarkottah is now part of the department of respiratory medicine, which is housed here (except for the outpatient department and intensive-care unit, which are at the college). The sanatorium has been renamed the Chest Diseases Hospital.
Thiruvananthapuram Dental College was founded in 1959, one of four dental colleges in India's four southern states. M. Thangavelu, dean of the medical college, was instrumental in organizing the institution. A. M. Clement, a dental surgeon at the medical college, was appointed its first director. The college admits 50 students a year for its BDS course. Postgraduate courses began in 1966. The college has six departments under director N. O. Varghese.
Established in 1967, Kerala's first pharmaceutical college offers bachelor's and master's degrees and a diploma in pharmaceutical sciences. The college includes departments of pharmacology, pharmaceutics, pharmacognosy, pharmaceutical chemistry and pharmaceutical microbiology. Other facilities are toxicology and animal labs, a drug-information center, morphine-tablet manufacturing and a medicinal
The college, founded in 1972, is affiliated with the University of Kerala medical school. It has offered postgraduate programmes in nursing since 1987. The college has five areas of speciality training: mental-health nursing, medical-surgical nursing, pediatric nursing, obstetrical and gynaecological nursing and community-health nursing. Although the number of male students permitted to enroll in the school was originally restricted to 12.5 percent of applicants, the restriction has been removed. A specialised nursing wing opened in 2011.
The centre, which primarily provides rehabilitation services for amputees, was established in 1975.
The library, housed in the administrative wing, contains books and academic journals relating to medicine and its allied sciences. Its Learning Resource Center (LRC), established by the college's alumni association, has internet-enabled computers for paid use and subscribes to online medical journals.
Courses offered by the college are:
The college follows the Kerala model of health care. The state has maintained health indices at par with developed nations, well above the national averages. This has been studied by a number of agencies for use in other states of India and developing nations. During the 1950s Asian flu pandemic, it was the principal institute to isolate and research the virus. The college has been upgraded to one of the All India Institutes of Medical Sciences due to its provision of tertiary care to southern India.
SAT Mix, developed by doctors and nutritionists at SAT Hospital, is used throughout India to manage childhood malnutrition and is a cost-effective measure to reduce infant mortality. The Thiruvananthapuram Development Chart, a scale to assess child development, was developed by the Child Development Center and is recommended for community developmental assessment. The college is one of 15 across India to be connected through the National Knowledge Commission's National Knowledge Network to integrate its knowledge base with the global scientific community.
The college conducted an international Erudite Conclave, the region's first, in November 2011 to provide momentum to medical research. Speakers included Nobel laureate in medicine Rolf M. Zinkernagel, ophthalmologist and inventor of inexpensive intraocular lenses Sanduk Ruit, and SRISTI and techpedia.in founder Anil Kumar Gupta. The second conclave, in 2012, was attended by R. Basant, Padmasree Dr. G. Vijayaraghavan, S. Murti (Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram), R. V. G. Menon, former Indian ambassador T. P. Sreenivasan and Sri Pooyam Tirunal Gowry Parvati Bhai, princess of Travancore.
The number of male and female students in the college is almost equal. In addition to Kerala, students from Lakshadweep, northeast India and other parts of the country are admitted by recommendation and under the All India quota. The college hosts exchange students from the Karolinska Institute and other public-health and medical schools. Visitors have included Alexander Fleming, E. Lundsgaard, Karl Evang, Julian Huxley, Wharton Young, Jean Aicardi, David Morley and A. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar.
The college union was dedicated in 1952 by Alexander Fleming. Since it is in the state capital, it has been politicized and depoliticized. In accordance with Lyngdoh Committee recommendations, each incoming class selects a representative to the student council (which selects the union).
Athletic Association Day and the college-union inauguration are major campus events. The college has hosted the Kerala University Youth Festival and the Intermedicos Festival several times. Medex public exhibitions were organised in 1974 (as a part of the college's silver-jubilee celebration), 2000, 2001, 2012 and 2017. Annual cultural events (organised by the classes) and sports and games competitions are held on campus. Academic programs include the Erudite Conclave and the Student Medical Research Conference. Intermedicos Genesis 14 was held at the school on 2–8 December 2014. During the annual Interbatch Euphoria, students from different classes compete in the fields of arts, cultural activities, quizzes and sports.
The medical, dental, optometry and nursing colleges organize separate graduation ceremonies. There are no separate graduation ceremonies after postgraduate courses.
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