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Gluten exorphins are a group of opioid peptides formed during digestion of the gluten protein. It has been hypothesized that people with autism and schizophrenia have abnormal leakage from the gut of these compounds, which then pass into the brain and disrupt brain function, a process collectively known as the opioid excess theory or a part of leaky gut syndrome. This is partly the basis for the gluten-free, casein-free diet. The medical evidence is mixed. Two clinical studies of autism patients who followed this diet found no benefit. Another study found a benefit. Another study suggested the diet may present a greater risk to brain development.