This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Gibbon–human last common ancestor

Hominoid family tree

The gibbon–human last common ancestor (GHLCA, GLCA, or G/H LCA) is the last common ancestor shared by the families Hominidae and Hylobatidae. In other words, GHLCA is ancestor of the Orangutan–human last common ancestor on one hand and gibbons on the other. Due to complex hybrid speciation, it is not possible to give a precise estimate on the age of this ancestral population. It is estimated to have lived 15.9 to 17.6 million years ago (TGHLCA) during the early Miocene.[1]

The species, which has not been identified, was smaller than previously thought and about the size of a gibbon.[2]

The family of Hylobatidae has four gibbon genera (Hylobates with 9 species, Hoolock with 3 species, Nomascus with 7 species and Symphalangus with only 1 species) [3][1] containing 20 different species. Each genus has a different number of chromosomes.[4] Despite extensive genomic analysis the ordering of the genera is not clear.

Distribution of hylobatidae

Evolutionary history

The extinct Bunopithecus sericus was a gibbon or gibbon-like ape.[5]

Whole genome molecular dating analyses indicate that the gibbon lineage diverged from that of great apes (Hominidae) around 16.8 million years ago (15.9 – 17.6 Mya).[1] Adaptive divergence associated with chromosomal rearrangements led to rapid radiation of the four genera 5-7 Mya. Each genus comprises a distinct, well-delineated lineage, but the sequence and timing of divergences among these genera has been hard to resolve, even with whole genome data, due to radiative speciations and extensive incomplete lineage sorting. The various speciations resulted in short internal branches in the species phylogeny.[1][6] An analysis based on morphology suggests that the four genera are ordered as (Symphalangus, (Nomascus, (Hoolock, Hylobates)))[7]

A morphology based model of Hominidae and Hylobatidae


Hominoidea (hominoids, apes)
Hylobatidae
(gibbons)

Symphalangus

Nomascus

Hoolock

Hylobates

Hominidae (hominids, great apes)
Ponginae
(Orangutans)
Homininae
Gorillini
(Gorilla)
Hominini
Panina
(chimpanzees)
Hominina (Humans)

A coalescent-based species tree analysis of genome-scale datasets suggests a phylogeny for the four genera ordered as (Hylobates, (Nomascus, (Hoolock, Symphalangus))).[3]


Hominoidea (hominoids, apes)
Hylobatidae
(gibbons)

Hylobates

Nomascus

Hoolock

Symphalangus

Hominidae (hominids, great apes)
Ponginae
(Orangutans)
Homininae
Gorillini
(Gorilla)
Hominini
Panina
(chimpanzees)
Hominina (Humans)

Taxonomy

Family Hylobatidae: gibbons[8][7][9]

Siamang, Symphalangus syndactylus
Hoolock gibbon

Physical features are not enough to work out the relationships of the gibbon genera. The family is divided into four genera based on their diploid chromosome number: Hylobates (44), Hoolock (38), Nomascus (52), and Symphalangus (50).[5][7]There is an extinct fifth genus named Bunopithecus which is either a gibbon or gibbon-like ape.[5] An extinct sixth genus, Junzi, was identified in 2018 based on a partial skull found in China.[10]

Fossil genera

Appearance and ecology

Because fossils are so scarce it is not clear what GHLCA looked like. It is unknown whether GHLCA was tailless and had a broad, flat rib cage like their descendants.[11]:193 But it is likely that he was a small animal and probably only weighed 12 kilograms (26 lb). This contradicts previous theories that they were the size of chimpanzees and that apes moved to hanging and swinging from trees in order to get off the ground because they were too big. There might have been an arms race in brachiating to reach the best food. Also the Hominidae which came later were smaller than their ancestors which is contrary to normal evolution where animals get larger over their evolutionary development.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Carbone, Lucia; et al. (2014). "Gibbon genome and the fast karyotype evolution of small apes". Nature. 513 (11 Sept 2014): 195–201. Bibcode:2014Natur.513..195C. doi:10.1038/nature13679. PMC 4249732. PMID 25209798.
  2. ^ a b "New Study Suggests that Last Common Ancestor of Humans and Apes was Smaller than Thought". American Museum of Natural History. Archived from the original on 26 October 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  3. ^ a b Shi, Cheng-Min; Yang, Ziheng (January 2018). "Coalescent-Based Analyses of Genomic Sequence Data Provide a Robust Resolution of Phylogenetic Relationships among Major Groups of Gibbons". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 35 (1): 159–179. doi:10.1093/molbev/msx277. PMC 5850733. PMID 29087487.
  4. ^ Dawkins (2016). The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution. pp. 152–170. ISBN 978-0544859937.
  5. ^ a b c Mootnick, A.; Groves, C. P. (2005). "A new generic name for the hoolock gibbon (Hylobatidae)". International Journal of Primatology. 26 (4): 971–976. doi:10.1007/s10764-005-5332-4.
  6. ^ Matsudaira K, Ishida T (2010) Phylogenetic relationships and divergence dates of the whole mitochondrial genome sequences among three gibbon genera. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
  7. ^ a b c Geissmann, Thomas (December 1995). "Gibbon systematics and species identification" (PDF). International Zoo News. 42: 467–501. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2008-08-15.
  8. ^ Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 178–181. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
  9. ^ Geissmann, Thomas. "Gibbon Systematics and Species Identification" Archived 2012-07-13 at WebCite (web version). Ch.3: "Adopting a Systematic Framework" Archived 2016-03-17 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 2011-04-05.
  10. ^ Weintraub, Karen (2018-06-21). "Extinct gibbon found in tomb of ancient Chinese emperor's grandmother". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2018-09-21. Retrieved 2019-02-10.
  11. ^ Kane, Jonathan; Willoughby, Emily; Michael Keesey, T. (2016-12-31). God's Word or Human Reason?: An Inside Perspective on Creationism. ISBN 9781629013725.

See also