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Ghiyath Shah

Ghiyath Shah
Malwa Sultanate
Reign1469–1500
PredecessorMahmud Shah I
SuccessorNasir-ud-Din Shah

Ghiyath Shah, popularly known as Ghiyas-ud-Din Shah or Ghiyasuddin,[1] was a Sultan of the Malwa Sultanate in the fifteenth century.[2]

Accession

The eldest son of Mahmud, he served his father as a military leader.[3] According to Firishta, shortly after his accession, he held a grand feast at which he announced that after thirty-four years on the field he was yielding his military rule to his son.[4] He then retired to a life of ease.

Lifestyle

Ghiyath enjoyed many pleasures, but was devoutly religious. He abstained from intoxicating drink and foods forbidden on religious grounds.[5] According to Firishta, he gave instructions to his attendants that he should always be woken at the hour of prayer and that they were known to pull him out of bed while he was asleep.[4]

He was a follower of Moinuddin Chishti and is believed to have erected a 23-metre (75 ft) high ceremonial gateway named Buland Darwaza at the Ajmer Sharif Dargah in honour of the scholar.[6]

He was known as an eccentric lover of art. For example, Nimmatnama-i-Nasiruddin-Shahi (Book of Delights)[7] is a cookery book produced between 1495 and 1505 for the sultan that is richly illustrated in a fusion of Persian and pre-Islamic Indian style. The book contains fifty images, including the sultan, servants, landscapes and buildings as well as food preparation.[8]

Attitude to Women

There were 12,000 women in Ghiyasuddin's court, including musicians, dancers and wrestlers.[9] Ghiyath was interested in female education and set up a Madrasa in Sarangpur to teach the women of his court. Tutors were engaged to teach the royal princesses and over 70 women were well versed in the Quran.[10] According to historian Ramya Sreenivasan, the king had a roving eye, and is reported to have undertaken the quest for Padmini, not a particular Rajput princess, but the ideal type of woman according to Hindu erotology.[11]

Succession

Towards the end of his life, there was conflict between his eldest son Nasir-ud-Din Shah, who had commanded the army, and his youngest son Ala-ud-Din. Nasir-ud-Din was chased from the capital Mando in 1499, but ultimately triumphed, returning to the palace on 22 October 1500. Nasir-ud-Din then executed his brother, along with his children and the rest of his family, and was formally crowned. Ghiyasuddin was found dead four months later, widely believed to have been poisoned by his son and successor.[12]

References

  1. ^ Sharma, Santosh Kumar (2005). Honey and Its Ayurvedic Approach. Jaipur: Publication Scheme. p. 35. ISBN 978-8181820105.
  2. ^ Singh, Nagendra Kr; Singh, Nagendra Kumar (2000). International Encyclopaedia of Islamic Dynasties. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. ISBN 978-8126104031.
  3. ^ Day, Upendra Nath (1965). Medieval Malwa, a political and cultural history, 1401-1562. New Delhi: Munshi Ram Manohar Lal.
  4. ^ a b Firishta, Mahomed Kasim (1829). History of the Rise of the Mahometan Power in India, till the year A.D. 1612, Volume IV. Translated by Briggs, John. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green. pp. 236–239.
  5. ^ Ghosh, Suresh Chandra (2001). History of Education in India. Delhi: Low Price Publications. p. 81. ISBN 978-8175361935.
  6. ^ Currim, Mumtaz; Michell, George (2004). Dargahs, Abodes of the Saints. Mumbai: Marg Publications. p. 59. ISBN 978-8185026657.
  7. ^ Dalrymple, William (January 2017). "Scents and sensuality". 1843. Economist Group. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  8. ^ Avari, Burjor (2013). Islamic Civilization in South Asia: A history of Muslim power and presence in the Indian subcontinent. London: Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 978-0415580625.
  9. ^ Gupta, Kamala (2003). Women In Hindu Social System (1206-1707 A.D.). New Delhi: Inter India Publications. p. 178. ISBN 978-8121004145.
  10. ^ Iftikhar, Rukhsana (2016). Indian Feminism: Class, Gender & Identity in Medieval Ages. Chennai: Notion Press.
  11. ^ "What history can and can't tell you about Alauddin Khilji and legend of Padmavati". Ghiyath al-din Khilji, according to a Hindu inscription in the Udaipur area, was defeated in battle in 1488 by a Rajput chieftain, Badal-Gora, which incidentally also happened to be the names of the twins, Badal and Gora, the vassals of Ratansen, in the epic Padmaavat".
  12. ^ Allan, John Andrew; Dodwell, Henry Herbert (1936). The Cambridge Shorter History of India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 307.

See also

List of rulers of Malwa

Preceded by
Mahmud Shah I
Sultan of Malwa
1469–1500
Succeeded by
Nasr Shah