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German submarine U-453

History
Nazi Germany
Name: U-453
Ordered: 30 October 1939
Builder: Deutsche Werke, Kiel
Yard number: 284
Laid down: 4 July 1940
Launched: 30 April 1941
Commissioned: 26 June 1941
Fate: Sunk by depth charges on 21 May 1944 off the south coast of Italy at position 38°13′N 16°30′E / 38.217°N 16.500°E / 38.217; 16.500 by Royal Navy surface warships.
General characteristics
Class and type: Type VIIC submarine
Displacement:
  • 769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
  • 871 t (857 long tons) submerged
Length:
Beam:
  • 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
  • 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Height: 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)
Draught: 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)
Installed power:
  • 2,800–3,200 PS (2,100–2,400 kW; 2,800–3,200 bhp) (diesels)
  • 750 PS (550 kW; 740 shp) (electric)
Propulsion:
Speed:
  • 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) surfaced
  • 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph) submerged
Range:
  • 8,500 nmi (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
  • 80 nmi (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
Test depth:
  • 230 m (750 ft)
  • Crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
Complement: 4 officers, 40–56 enlisted
Armament:
Service record[1]
Part of:
Commanders:
Operations:
  • 1st patrol: 12 November – 17 December 1941
  • 2nd patrol: 17 January – 1 February 1942
  • 3rd patrol: 22 March – 21 April 1942
  • 4th patrol: 25 May – 14 June 1942
  • 5th patrol: 18 June – 21 July 1942
  • 6th patrol: 17 September – 15 October 1942
  • 7th patrol: 29 November – 17 December 1942
  • 8th patrol: 11 January – 16 February 1943
  • 9th patrol: 1 April – 5 May 1943
  • 10th patrol: 23 June – 24 July 1943
  • 11th patrol: 31 July – 14 August 1943
  • 12th patrol: 21–27 October 1943
  • 13th patrol: 2–13 November 1943
  • 14th patrol: 24 November – 1 December 1943
  • 15th patrol: 12 January – 9 February 1944
  • 16th patrol: 8–25 March 1944
  • 17th patrol: 30 April – 21 May 1944
Victories:
  • 9 merchant ships sunk (23,289 GRT)
  • 2 merchant ships damaged (16,610 GRT)
  • 2 warships sunk (2,540 tons)

German submarine U-453 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during World War II. She was laid down on 4 July 1940 by Deutsche Werke in Kiel as yard number 284, launched on 30 April 1941 and commissioned on 26 June 1941 under Kapitänleutnant Egon-Reiner von Schlippenbach (Knight’s Cross).

The boat's service began on 26 June 1941 with training as part of the 7th U-boat Flotilla, followed by active service until being transferred to the 29th flotilla on 1 January 1942, based in La Spezia in Italy.

Design

German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-453 had a displacement of 769 tonnes (757 long tons) when at the surface and 871 tonnes (857 long tons) while submerged.[2] She had a total length of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two Siemens-Schuckert GU 343/38–8 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).[2]

The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph).[2] When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-453 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, and a 2 cm (0.79 in) C/30 anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.[2]

Service history

In 17 patrols she sank nine merchant ships for a total of 23,289 gross register tons (GRT), plus two warships and damaged two merchant ships.

Fate

She was depth charged and sunk by on 21 May 1944 off the south coast of Italy at position 38°13′N 16°30′E / 38.217°N 16.500°E / 38.217; 16.500 by Royal Navy destroyers HMS Termagant, HMS Tenacious and the escort destroyer HMS Liddesdale.

Summary of raiding history

Date Name Nationality Tonnage[Note 1] Fate[3]
13 December 1941 Badalona  Spain 4,202 Sunk
7 April 1942 HMHS Somersetshire  Royal Navy 9,716 Damaged
20 January 1943 Jean Jadot  Belgium 5,859 Sunk
30 June 1943 Oligarch  United Kingdom 6,894 Damaged
6 July 1943 Shahjehan  United Kingdom 5,454 Sunk
15 November 1943 HMS Quail  Royal Navy 1,705 Total loss - mined
20 November 1943 Jela  Yugoslavia 335 Sunk - mined
22 November 1943 HMS Hebe  Royal Navy 835 Sunk - mined
1 February 1944 Agia Paraskevi  Greece 80 Sunk
1 February 1944 Salem  Lebanon 81 Sunk
1 February 1944 Himli  Lebanon 67 Sunk
1 February 1944 Yahiya  Syria 64 Sunk
19 May 1944 Fort Missanabie  United Kingdom 7,147 Sunk

References

Notes

  1. ^ Merchant ship tonnages are in gross register tons. Military vessels are listed by tons displacement.

Citations

  1. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-453". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d Gröner 1991, pp. 43-46.
  3. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-453". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 27 December 2014.

Bibliography

  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). German U-boat commanders of World War II : a biographical dictionary. Translated by Brooks, Geoffrey. London, Annapolis, Md: Greenhill Books, Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-186-6.
  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [German U-boat losses from September 1939 to May 1945]. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German). IV. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler. ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
  • Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.

External links

  • Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-453". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  • Hofmann, Markus. "U 453". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de (in German). Retrieved 26 December 2014.