Fingerspelling originally used an alphabet based on the Russian manual alphabet. However, in 2012 a new Mkhedruli-based manual alphabet was developed with the support of the Union of the Deaf of Georgia.
^a Sign-language names reflect the region of origin. Natural sign languages are not related to the spoken language used in the same region. For example, French Sign Language originated in France, but is not related to French. Conversely, ASL and BSL both originated in English-speaking countries but are not related to each other; ASL however is related to French Sign Language.
^b Denotes the number (if known) of languages within the family. No further information is given on these languages.