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Gemmatimonadetes

Gemmatimonadetes
Scientific classification
Domain:
(unranked):
Phylum:
Gemmatimonadetes

Zhang et al. 2003
Classes
  • Longimicrobia
  • Gemmatimonadetes
Synonyms
  • Gemmatimonadaeota Oren et al. 2015

The Gemmatimonadetes are a phylum of bacteria created for the type species Gemmatimonas aurantiaca. This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.[1] Gemmatimonadetes have been found in a variety of arid soils, such as grassland, prairie, and pasture soil, as well as eutrophic lake sediments and alpine soils. This wide range of environments where Gemmatimonadetes have been found suggests an adaptation to low soil moisture.[2] A study conducted showed that the distribution of the Gemmatimonadetes in soil tends to be more dependent on the moisture availability than aggregation, reinforcing the belief that the members of this phylum prefer dryer soils.[3] The phylum Gemmatimonadetes is distinct from the phylum Cyanobacteria and may have diverged in early microbial evolution at least 3 billion years ago.[4]

The first member of this phylum was discovered in 2003 in activated sludge in a sewage treatment system. The bacterium was named Gemmatimonas aurantiaca.[5] This bacterium is identified as strain T-27T, is Gram-negative, and is the only member of this phylum that has been studied in depth. The metabolic pathways and enzymes of this bacterium are unique and it is able to grow by both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.[6]

Taxonomy

The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN),[7] National Center for Biotechnology Information[8] and the All-Species Living Tree Project.[9]

  • Phylum Gemmatimonadetes Zhang et al. 2003 [Gemmatimonadaeota Oren et al. 2015]
    • Class Longimicrobia Pascual et al. 2016
      • Order Longimicrobiales Pascual et al. 2016
        • Family Longimicrobiaceae Pascual et al. 2016
          • Genus Longimicrobium Pascual et al. 2016
            • Species Longimicrobium terrae Pascual et al. 2016
    • Class Gemmatimonadetes Zhang et al. 2003
      • Order Gemmatimonadales Zhang et al. 2003
        • Family Gemmatimonadaceae Zhang et al. 2003
          • Genus Gemmatirosa DeBruyn et al. 2013
            • Species Gemmatirosa kalamazoonesis DeBruyn et al. 2013
          • Genus Gemmatimonas Zhang et al. 2003 emend. Zeng et al. 2015 [Gemmimonas (sic)]
            • Species G. phototrophica Zeng et al. 2015
            • Species G. aurantiaca Zhang et al. 2003 emend. Zeng et al. 2015 [Gemmimonas aurantiaca (sic)]

See also

References

  1. ^ Fawaz, Mariam (2013). "Revealing the Ecological Role of Gemmatimonadetes Through Cultivation and Molecular Analysis of Agricultural Soils". Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee: vi.
  2. ^ DeBruyn, J; Nixon, L; Fawaz, M; Johnson, M; Radosevich, M (2011). "Global Biogeography and Quantitative Season Dynamics of Gemmatimonadetes in Soil". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77 (17): 6295–300. doi:10.1128/AEM.05005-11. PMC 3165389. PMID 21764958.
  3. ^ Fawaz, Mariam (2013). "Revealing the Ecological Role of Gemmatimonadetes Through Cultivation and Molecular Analysis of Agricultural Soils". Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee: vi.
  4. ^ Takaichi, S; Maoka, T; Takasaki, K; Hanada, S (2009). "Carotenoids of Gemmatimonas aurantiaca (Gemmatimonadetes): identification of a novel carotenoid, deoxyoscillol 2-rhamnoside, and proposed biosynthetic pathway of oscillol 2,2′-dirhamnoside". Microbiology. 156 (3): 757–763. doi:10.1099/mic.0.034249-0. PMID 19959572.
  5. ^ Zhang H, Sekiguchi Y, Hanada S, Hugenholtz P, Kim H, Kamagata Y, Nakamura K (2003). "Gemmatimonas aurantiaca gen. nov., sp. nov., a gram-negative, aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating micro-organism, the first cultured representative of the new bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 53 (Pt 4): 1155–63. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02520-0. PMID 12892144.
  6. ^ Takaichi, S; Maoka, T; Takasaki, K; Hanada, S (2009). "Carotenoids of Gemmatimonas aurantiaca (Gemmatimonadetes): identification of a novel carotenoid, deoxyoscillol 2-rhamnoside, and proposed biosynthetic pathway of oscillol 2,2′-dirhamnoside". Microbiology. 156 (3): 757–763. doi:10.1099/mic.0.034249-0. PMID 19959572.
  7. ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Gemmatimonadetes". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2016-03-20.
  8. ^ Sayers; et al. "Gemmatimonadetes". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2016-03-20.
  9. ^ "16S rRNA-based LTP release 123 (full tree)" (PDF). Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. Retrieved 2016-03-20.

External links