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Gaya, India

Gaya
City
Vishnupad Temple
Vishnupad Temple in Gaya, contains footprints of Lord Vishnu
Gaya is located in Bihar
Gaya
Gaya
Location of Gaya in Bihar
Gaya is located in India
Gaya
Gaya
Gaya (India)
Coordinates: 24°45′N 85°01′E / 24.75°N 85.01°E / 24.75; 85.01
Country India
State Bihar
Region Magadha
Division Magadh Division
District Gaya
Government
 • Type Municipal corporation
 • Body Gaya Nagar Nigam
 • Mayor Birendra Kumar
Area[2]
 • Total 90.17 km2 (34.81 sq mi)
Elevation 111 m (364 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 470,839[1]
 • Rank

98th (India)

2nd (Bihar)
 • Density 9,482/km2 (24,560/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Gayaite, Gayavi [3]
Languages
 • Official Hindi, Magahi, Urdu
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN 823001 - 13
Telephone code 91-631
ISO 3166 code IN-BR
Vehicle registration BR-02
Railway Station Gaya Junction
Airport Gaya International Airport
Website www.gaya.bih.nic.in, Apna Gaya Official

Gaya is a city of ancient, historical and mythological significance. It is one of the major tourist attractions of the state of Bihar. Gaya is the second largest city of Bihar, with a population of 470,839, and is also the headquarters of Gaya district and Magadh division.

Gaya is 100 kilometres (62 mi) south of Patna, the capital city of Bihar. Situated on the banks of the Phalgu River (or Niranjana, as mentioned in Ramayana), it is a place sanctified by the Jain, Hindu, and Buddhist religions. The city of Gaya is surrounded by small rocky hills (Mangla-Gauri, Shringa-Sthan, Ram-Shila and Brahmayoni) on three sides and the river on the fourth (eastern) side. The city has a mix of natural surroundings, age old buildings, green areas and narrow by-lanes.

Gaya district finds mention in the great epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata. Rama, along with Sita and Lakshmana, visited Gaya to offer pind-daan to their father Dasharath. In the Mahabharata, the place is referred to as Gayapuri.

Origin of Name

Gaya derives its name from the mythological demon Gayasur (which literally means Gaya, the demon). According to Vayu Purana, Gaya was the name of a demon (Asura) whose body became pious after he performed rigid penance and secured blessings from Lord Vishnu. It was said that the body of Gayasura was transformed into the series of rocky hills that make up the landscape of Gaya.[4]

History

Brahmayoni Hill, where Buddha preached Adittapariyaya Sutta (Fire Sermon).

Ancient history

Gaya is an ancient city, documented history of Gaya dating back to the enlightenment of Gautama Buddha. About 11 km from Gaya town is Bodh Gaya, the place where Gautam Buddha attained enlightenment. Gautam Buddha was a sage on whose teachings, the religion Buddhism was founded. However, Gaya was a place of pilgrimage for people all over the world even prior to this event. Gaya further flourished under the rule of dynasties like the Mauryans who ruled from Pataliputra (modern Patna) and covered the area beyond the boundaries of the Indian subcontinent. During this period, Gaya was a part of the Magadh region.

Gaya witnessed the rise and fall of many dynasties in the Magadh Region. From the 6th century BC to the 18th century AD, about 2300–2400 years, Gaya has occupied an important place in the cultural history of the region. Its significance in cultural history started with the Sisunaga dynasty founded by Sisunaga, who exercised power over Patna and Gaya around 600 BC. Bimbisara, fifth king of the dynasty, who lived and ruled around 519 BC, had projected Gaya to the outer world. Having attained an important place in the history of civilization, the area experienced the bliss of Gautam Buddha and Bhagwan Mahavir during the reign of Bimbisara. After a short spell of Nanda dynasty, Gaya and the entire Magadha region came under the Mauryan rule with Ashoka (272 BC – 232 BC) embracing Buddhism. He visited Gaya and built the first temple at Bodh Gaya to commemorate Prince Gautama's attainment of supreme enlightenment.

The period of Hindu revivalism commence with the coming of the Guptas during the 4th and 5th century A.D. Samudragupta of Magadh helped to bring Gaya in limelight. It was the headquarters of Bihar district during the Gupta empire.

Gaya was then passed on to the Pala Empire with Gopala as the ruler. It is believed that the present temple of Bodh Gaya was built during the reign of Dharmapala, son of Gopala.

Gaya, in the 12th century, was invaded by Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji of the Ghaznavid Empire. By 1557, it remained a part of the Mughal Empire until it was finally passed on to the British after the Battle of Buxar in 1764. Gaya, along with other parts of the country, won freedom in 1947. Gaya is a famous ancient city because, in the time of Ramayana, God Ram, Sita and Lakshman came here for Pind-daan of his father Dasharath for moksha of his soul.

Modern history

The town of Gaya, in about 1810 AD, consisted of two parts: one, the residence of the priests, which was called Gaya; and the other, the residence of lawyers and tradesmen, which was originally called Elahabad, but later on, as was developed by a renowned collector "Saheb," Thomas Law, it was called Sahebgunj. It is the birthplace of eminent nationalist Bihar Vibhuti, Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha, Bihar's first deputy Chief Minister-cum-Finance Minister. The last great ruler of Magadha was Maharaja of Tekari-the leader of Kisan Andolan, Swami Sahajanand Saraswati established an ashram at Neyamatpur, Gaya (Bihar) which later became the centre of freedom struggle in Bihar. Many prominent leaders of Indian National Congress visited there frequently to meet Yadunandan (Jadunandan) Sharma, the leader of Kisan Andolan who resided in the ashram set up by Swamiji. Yadunandan Sharma became the undisputed leader of peasants in the Gaya district and second in command to the legendary freedom fighter and peasant leader Swami Sahajanand Saraswati. Gaya has also immensely contributed in the Indian Independence Movement. During the independence movement, the All India session of the Congress was held under the presidency of Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das in 1922, which was attended by great luminaries and prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement, such as Mohandas K. Gandhi, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Dr Anugrah Narayan Sinha, Sardar Patel, Maulana Azad, Jawaharlal Nehru and Sri Krishna Sinha. The former Bihar Chief Minister Late Satyendra Narain Sinha also hailed from Gaya. Shri Ishwar Chaudhary, a member of the Fifth, Sixth and Ninth Lok Sabha during the period 1971-79 and 1989-91, represented Gaya constituency of Bihar.

Establishment of the Gaya District

Gaya was established in the year 1865. Earlier, Gaya was a part of the district of erstwhile Behar of Ramgarh (now in Jharkhand state) till 1864. It was given the status of an independent district on 3 October 1865. Subsequently, in May 1981, Magadh division was created by the Bihar state government with the districts of Gaya, Nawada, Aurangabad and Jehanabad. All these districts were at the level of sub-division when Gaya district was created. Gaya has seen three districts partitioned off from its territory, Aurangabad and Nawada in 1976; and Jehanabad in 1988. Gaya district occupies an area of 4,976 km2 (1,921 mile2) comparatively equivalent to the island of Trinidad.

Climate

As Gaya is surrounded by hills on three sides and river on the fourth side, the climate of Gaya is seasonable. Climate is characterised by relatively high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. The Köppen Climate Classification sub-type for this climate is "Cfa" (Humid Subtropical Climate).[5]

Climate data for Gaya, India
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 24
(75)
27
(80)
33
(92)
39
(102)
41
(105)
38
(101)
33
(92)
32
(90)
33
(91)
32
(89)
29
(84)
25
(77)
32
(90)
Average low °C (°F) 10
(50)
13
(55)
18
(64)
23
(74)
27
(80)
28
(82)
26
(79)
26
(78)
25
(77)
22
(71)
14
(58)
10
(50)
20
(68)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 20
(0.8)
20
(0.8)
13
(0.5)
8
(0.3)
20
(0.8)
137
(5.4)
315
(12.4)
328
(12.9)
206
(8.1)
53
(2.1)
10
(0.4)
3
(0.1)
1,130
(44.5)
Source: Weatherbase[6]

Economy

Gaya is the second largest economic contributor after Patna for Bihar. It has a large number of household industries like agarbatti, tilkut, lai, stone crafting, power looms, small-scale manufacturing industries, packing industries, plastic products industries, scrap Industries, and handlooms. Gaya functions as a service centre for the surrounding towns and villages. Commercial activities are located along the important roads of the town. The main vegetable market in the city is the Kedarnath Market. In addition, the city has a large number of informal shops. Gaya being an important centre for religious tourism. The city has a large number of affordable Hotels and other accommodations. Gaya has the highest number of hotels in Bihar & Jharkhand. One Five Star hotel is also proposed in Bodh Gaya. Maha Bodhi Hotel, Resort & Convention Centre is the largest hotel in Bodhgaya. On the other hand, Sambodhi Retreat, a resort of Bihar and Jharkhand, is also in the city.

Recently, Gaya has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of the Government of India.

Demographics

As per 2011 census, Gaya Urban Agglomeration had a population of 474,093.[7] Gaya Urban Agglomeration includes Gaya (Municipal Corporation), Kaler (Out Growth) and Paharpur (Census Town).[8] Gaya Municipal Corporation had a total population of 468,614[9] out of which 247,572 were males and 221,042 were females. The population below 5 years was 59,669. The sex ratio was 986. The literacy rate for the 7+ population was 85.74%.[10]

Religions in Gaya[11]
Religion Percent
Hindus
79.43%
Muslims
19.65%
Christians
0.26%
Jains
0.24%
Others†
1.42%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.09%), Buddhists (0.02%).

Transport

Gaya is well connected to the rest of India by roads, rail and airways. The Grand Chord section of the Indian Railways passes through Gaya.

Local transport

Many city buses, taxis are providing services across the city and Bodhgaya. Tangas, Auto rickshaw, Cycle rickshaws also ply across the city and Bodhgaya. The main bus stands are Govt. Bus Stand, Sikaria More Bus Stand, Gaurkashni Bus Stand (Manpur),and Delha Bus Stand. The local transport facility is reliable and auto rickshaws are available for various destinations in the city. Gaya-Patna railway line plays a major role in transporting people from the town to its state capital.

Roadways

Regular direct bus services run from Gaya to Patna, Bhagalpur, Munger, Nalanda, Rajgir, Varanasi, Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Hazaribagh, Durgapur, Asansol, Kolkata and Dhanbad. In 2011, A/C Mercedes-Benz Luxury services have been introduced by Bihar State Road Transport Corporation for Muzaffarpur, Patna, Munger, Bhagalpur, Motihari, Hazaribagh, Koderma, and Ramgarh.
The National Highway 2 Grand Trunk Road from Kolkata to Delhi passes about 30 km from Gaya. This connects Gaya to Patna, Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Rourkela, Durgapur, Kolkata (495 km), Varanasi (252 km), Allahabad, Kanpur, Delhi, Amritsar, and to the Pakistani cities of Lahore and Peshawar. Gaya is connected to Patna (105 km) by NH 83, Nawada, Rajgir (78 km) and Bihar Sharif by NH 120. Plans have been made to construct a four lane road from Patna to Dobhi via Gaya and Gaya to Bihar Sharif.

Railways

Gaya Junction railway station is a junction station serving the city. Gaya junction was in the list of 66 Stations to be built to International standards by Mamta Banerji of the UPA II Government. Gaya junction was the only station in Bihar and Jharkhand to find a place on the list. Gaya falls under the jurisdiction of Mughalsarai railway division of the East Central Railway zone. Grand Chord rail-line that connects Howrah and New Delhi passes through Gaya. It lies between Mughalsarai Junction on the Delhi side and Dhanbad Junction on the Howrah side. It is located at 24°48′13″N 84°59′57″E / 24.80361°N 84.99917°E / 24.80361; 84.99917.[12] It has an elevation of 117 metres (384 ft).[13][14]

Airport

Situated between Gaya (7 km) and Bodh Gaya (11 km), Gaya Airport is the largest, by area, and only operating international airport in Bihar and Jharkhand. It is connected to Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, to carry Hajis for the annual pilgrimage to the holy city of Makkah. The airport is also connected to Colombo, Sri Lanka; Bangkok, Thailand; Singapore and Paro, Bhutan. It is said to be being developed as a stand-by to the Kolkata airport. Gaya Airport is proposed to expand its area and runway. It is connected to Varanasi, Kolkata and Delhi by regular domestic flights.

Education

Gaya has a bright educational history with institutions like Magadh University, Gaya College, Anugrah Memorial College, Mirza Ghalib College, Gaya Engineering College and many more. A new National Importance Management College Indian Institute of Management Bodhgaya has also been established. Currently, this is Running in the Campus of Magadh University. The central university of South Bihar is also located in Gaya. Various English language schools provide Primary and Secondary education, some of them being Takshila School, DAV Public School, Creane memorial, Nazareth Academy, HHM public school, Elegant Public School, St. Chisti School and Gyan Bharti Public School.

Autonomous

Universities

   COLLEGES
  • Gaya College
  • Jagjivan College
  • [Mirza Ghalib College]
  • Anugrah Memorial College
  • Buddha Institute of Technology[15]

Engineering college

Medical college

See also

References

  1. ^ "UA/Cities 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 November 2011. 
  2. ^ "City Development Plan for Gaya: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY" (PDF). Urban Development and Housing Department, Government of Bihar. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 September 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016. 
  4. ^ "The Hare Krsnas - Battles of Vishnu Avatars - Gayasur". Harekrsna.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2016. 
  5. ^ "Climate Summary for Gaya, India". Weatherbase.com. Archived from the original on 23 March 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2016. 
  6. ^ "Weatherbase.com". Weatherbase. 2013. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015.  Retrieved on 31 July 2013.
  7. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  8. ^ "Constituents of urban Agglomerations Having Population 1 Lakh & above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2016. 
  10. ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 
  11. ^ "Gaya City Census 2011 data". Census 2011 India. Archived from the original on 7 May 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017. 
  12. ^ "Gaya Junction". Wikimapia. Archived from the original on 10 February 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 
  13. ^ "Trains at Gaya". India Rail Info. Archived from the original on 8 December 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  14. ^ "Ghanbad Junction Railway Station Details". indiantrains.org. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  15. ^ [bodhgayabit.org]

External links

  1. Adittapariyaya Sutta – The Fire
  2. Verse from the Vatthupama Sutta – The Simile of the Cloth''