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Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom

Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom
894–1036
Location of Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom
StatusKingdom
CapitalGan Prefecture (Zhangye)
Common languagesOld Uyghur language
Religion Manichaeism
Buddhism
GovernmentMonarchy
Idiqut 
History 
• Established
894
• Disestablished
1036
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Uyghur Khaganate
Dingnan Jiedushi
History of the Turkic peoples
History of the Turkic peoples
Pre-14th century
Turkic Khaganate 552–744
  Western Turkic
  Eastern Turkic
Khazar Khaganate 618–1048
Xueyantuo 628–646
Great Bulgaria 632–668
  Danube Bulgaria
  Volga Bulgaria
Kangar union 659–750
Turk Shahi 665–850
Turgesh Khaganate 699–766
Uyghur Khaganate 744–840
Karluk Yabgu State 756–940
Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212
  Western Kara-Khanid
  Eastern Kara-Khanid
Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036
Qocho 856–1335
Pecheneg Khanates
860–1091
Kimek confederation
743–1035
Cumania
1067–1239
Oghuz Yabgu State
750–1055
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
Seljuk Empire 1037–1194
  Sultanate of Rum
Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Naiman Khanate –1204
Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526
  Mamluk dynasty
  Khalji dynasty
  Tughlaq dynasty
Golden Horde | [1][2][3] 1240s–1502
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517
  Bahri dynasty

The Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom, also referred to as the Hexi Uyghurs, was established in 894 around Gan Prefecture in modern Zhangye.[4][5] The kingdom lasted from 894 to 1036; during that time, many of Ganzhou's residents converted to Buddhism.[6]

The Hexi Corridor, located within modern Gansu, was traditionally a Chinese inroad into Asia. From the 9th to 11th centuries this area was shared between the Ganzhou Uyghurs and the Guiyi Circuit. By the early 11th century both the Uyghurs and Guiyi Circuit were conquered by the Tangut people of the Western Xia Dynasty.[7]

The Ganzhou Uyghur rulers were descended from the Yaghlakar dynasty.

History

There was a pre-existing community of Uyghurs at Gan Prefecture by 840 at the very latest.

Around the years 881 and 882, Gan Prefecture slipped from the control of the Guiyi Circuit.

In 894 the Uyghurs established the Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom in Gan Prefecture.

In 910 the Ganzhou Uyghurs attacked the Kingdom of Jinshan (Guiyi).

In 911 the Ganzhou Uyghurs attacked the Kingdom of Jinshan and forced them into an alliance as a lesser partner.

In 916 a Ganzhou Uyghur princess was married to Cao Yijin, governor of the Guiyi Circuit.

In 920 Huaijian Khagan became sickly.

In 924 Huaijian Khagan died and his sons Diyin and Renmei fought over the throne with Diyin coming out on top.

In 925 Cao Yijin led an attack on the Ganzhou Uyghurs and defeated them.

In 926 Diyin died and Aduoyu succeeded him as Shunhua Khagan. Shunhua Khagan married Cao Yijin's daughter.

In 930 Cao Yijin visited the Ganzhou Uyghur court in Gan Prefecture.

In 933 Shunhua Khagan died and Jingqiong succeeded him.

In 975 Jingqiong died and Yeluohe Mili'e succeeded him.

In 983 Jingqiong died and Lusheng succeeded him.

In 1003 Lusheng died and Zhongshun Baode Khagan succeeded him. The Tanguts attacked the Ganzhou Uyghurs but were defeated.

In 1008 the Ganzhou Uyghurs and Tanguts engaged in combat and the Uyghurs emerged victorious. The Liao dynasty attacked the Ganzhou Uyghurs and defeated them.

In 1009 the Ganzhou Uyghurs captured Liang Prefecture.

In 1010 the Liao dynasty attacked the Ganzhou Uyghurs and defeated them.

In 1016 Zhongshun Baode Khagan died and Huaining Shunhua Khagan succeeded him.

In 1023 Huaining Shunhua Khagan died and Guizhong Baoshun Khagan succeeded him.

In 1026 the Ganzhou Uyghurs were defeated in battle by the Liao dynasty.

In 1028 the Ganhzhou Uyghurs were defeated by the Tanguts. Guizhong Baoshun Khagan died and Baoguo Khagan succeeded him.

In 1036 the Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom was annexed by the Tanguts.

Modern era

The modern day descendants of the Ganzhou Uyghurs are known as the Yugur.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364.
  2. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280.
  3. ^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162.
  4. ^ Golden 2011, p. 47.
  5. ^ Millward 2007, p. 46.
  6. ^ Bosworth 2000, p. 70.
  7. ^ Bell, Connor Joseph (2008). The Uyghur Transformation in Medieval Inner Asia: From Nomadic Turkic Tradition to Cultured Mongol Administrators. ProQuest. pp. 65–69. ISBN 9780549807957. Retrieved 21 December. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  8. ^ Manichaeism and Nestorian Christianity, H. J. Klimkeit, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol.4, Part 2, 70
  • Fu-Hsüeh, Yang. 1994. “On the Sha-chou Uighur Kingdom”. Central Asiatic Journal 38 (1). Harrassowitz Verlag: 80–107. [www.jstor.org].

Bibliography

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