|Province of the Roman Empire|
|Historical era||Classical Antiquity|
|•||Annexation by Augustus||25 BC|
|•||Theme of Thrace established||7th century|
|Today part of||Turkey|
Galatia (//) was the name of a province of the Roman Empire in Anatolia (modern central Turkey). It was established by the first emperor, Augustus (sole rule 30 BC – 14 AD), in 25 BC, covering most of formerly independent Celtic Galatia, with its capital at Ancyra.
In c. 398 AD, during the reign of Arcadius, it was divided into the provinces of Galatia Prima and Galatia Secunda or Salutaris. Galatia Prima covered the northeastern part of the old province, retaining Ancyra as its capital and was headed by a consularis. Salutaris comprised the southwestern half of the old province and was headed by a praeses, with its seat at Pessinus. Both provinces were part of the Diocese of Pontus. The provinces were briefly reunited in 536–548 under Justinian I. Although the area was eventually incorporated in the new thema of Anatolikon in the latter half of the 7th century, traces of the old provincial administration survived until the early 8th century.
(List based on Bernard Rémy, Les carrières sénatoriales dans les provinces romaines d'Anatolie au Haut-Empire (31 av. J.-C. - 284 ap. J.-C.) (Istanbul: Institut Français d'Études Anatoliennes-Georges Dumézil, 1989).)
(Between AD 70 and AD 111 Galatia was combined with Cappadocia. The governors for those years can be found at List of Roman governors of Cappadocia.)
According to the canons of the Council of Chalcedon (451) and the Synecdemus of Hierocles (c. 531), the province of Galatia Prima had Ancyra as its metropolitan see, with six suffragan sees: Tavium, Aspona, Kinna, Lagania or Anastasiopolis, Mnizos and Juliopolis.
According to the canons of the Council of Chalcedon and the Synecdemus, the province of Galatia Secunda had Pessinus as its metropolitan see, with eight suffragan sees: Orkistos, Petinessos, Amorium, Klaneos (absent in Chalcedon), Troknades, Eudoxias, Myrika and Germa or Myriangelon. Pessinus sank into decay when Justinianopolis was founded in the mid-6th century and eventually the metropolitan see was transferred there, while retaining his title.