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Galanin receptor 2

AliasesGALR2, GAL2-R, GALNR2, GALR-2, Galanin receptor 2
External IDsOMIM: 603691 MGI: 1337018 HomoloGene: 2863 GeneCards: GALR2
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 17 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 17 (human)[1]
Chromosome 17 (human)
Genomic location for GALR2
Genomic location for GALR2
Band17q25.1Start76,074,781 bp[1]
End76,077,537 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE GALR2 gnf1h09841 s at fs.png

PBB GE GALR2 211226 at fs.png
More reference expression data
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 17: 76.07 – 76.08 MbChr 11: 116.28 – 116.28 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Galanin receptor 2, (GAL2) is a G-protein coupled receptor encoded by the GALR2 gene.[5]


Galanin is an important neuromodulator present in the brain, gastrointestinal system, and hypothalamopituitary axis. It is a 30-amino acid non-C-terminally amidated peptide that potently stimulates growth hormone secretion, inhibits cardiac vagal slowing of heart rate, abolishes sinus arrhythmia, and inhibits postprandial gastrointestinal motility. The actions of galanin are mediated through interaction with specific membrane receptors that are members of the 7-transmembrane family of G protein-coupled receptors. GALR2 interacts with the N-terminal residues of the galanin peptide. The primary signaling mechanism for GALR2 is through the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via Gq), in contrast to GALR1, which communicates its intracellular signal by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase through Gi. However, it has been demonstrated that GALR2 couples efficiently to both the Gq and Gi proteins to simultaneously activate 2 independent signal transduction pathways.[5]

See also


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000182687 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000020793 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: GALR2 galanin receptor 2".

Further reading

  • Bloomquist BT, Beauchamp MR, Zhelnin L, Brown SE, Gore-Willse AR, Gregor P, Cornfield LJ (Feb 1998). "Cloning and expression of the human galanin receptor GalR2". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 243 (2): 474–9. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.8133. PMID 9480833.
  • Fathi Z, Battaglino PM, Iben LG, Li H, Baker E, Zhang D, McGovern R, Mahle CD, Sutherland GR, Iismaa TP, Dickinson KE, Zimanyi IA (Jul 1998). "Molecular characterization, pharmacological properties and chromosomal localization of the human GALR2 galanin receptor". Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 58 (1–2): 156–69. doi:10.1016/S0169-328X(98)00116-8. PMID 9685625.
  • Kolakowski LF, O'Neill GP, Howard AD, Broussard SR, Sullivan KA, Feighner SD, Sawzdargo M, Nguyen T, Kargman S, Shiao LL, Hreniuk DL, Tan CP, Evans J, Abramovitz M, Chateauneuf A, Coulombe N, Ng G, Johnson MP, Tharian A, Khoshbouei H, George SR, Smith RG, O'Dowd BF (Dec 1998). "Molecular characterization and expression of cloned human galanin receptors GALR2 and GALR3". Journal of Neurochemistry. 71 (6): 2239–51. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1998.71062239.x. PMID 9832121.
  • Borowsky B, Walker MW, Huang LY, Jones KA, Smith KE, Bard J, Branchek TA, Gerald C (1999). "Cloning and characterization of the human galanin GALR2 receptor". Peptides. 19 (10): 1771–81. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(98)00133-8. PMID 9880084.
  • Berger A, Tuechler C, Almer D, Kogner P, Ratschek M, Kerbl R, Iismaa TP, Jones N, Sperl W, Kofler B (Feb 2002). "Elevated expression of galanin receptors in childhood neuroblastic tumors". Neuroendocrinology. 75 (2): 130–8. doi:10.1159/000048229. PMID 11867941.
  • Berger A, Lang R, Moritz K, Santic R, Hermann A, Sperl W, Kofler B (Feb 2004). "Galanin receptor subtype GalR2 mediates apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells". Endocrinology. 145 (2): 500–7. doi:10.1210/en.2003-0649. PMID 14592962.
  • Belfer I, Hipp H, Bollettino A, McKnight C, Evans C, Virkkunen M, Albaugh B, Max MB, Goldman D, Enoch MA (Jul 2007). "Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes". Genes, Brain, and Behavior. 6 (5): 473–81. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2006.00275.x. PMID 17083333.

External links

  • "Galanin Receptors: GAL2". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology.

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.