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G protein-coupled bile acid receptor

AliasesGPBAR1, BG37, GPCR19, GPR131, M-BAR, TGR5, G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1
External IDsOMIM: 610147 MGI: 2653863 HomoloGene: 18125 GeneCards: GPBAR1
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 2 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 2 (human)[1]
Chromosome 2 (human)
Genomic location for GPBAR1
Genomic location for GPBAR1
Band2q35Start218,259,496 bp[1]
End218,263,861 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE GPBAR1 gnf1h07596 at fs.png
More reference expression data
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 2: 218.26 – 218.26 MbChr 1: 74.28 – 74.28 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

The G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1) also known G-protein coupled receptor 19 (GPCR19), membrane-type receptor for bile acids (M-BAR) or TGR5 as is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPBAR1 gene.[5]


This gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. This protein functions as a cell surface receptor for bile acids. Treatment of cells expressing this GPCR with bile acids induces the production of intracellular cAMP, activation of a MAP kinase signaling pathway, and internalization of the receptor. The receptor is implicated in the suppression of macrophage functions and regulation of energy homeostasis by bile acids.[6]

One effect of this receptor is to activate deiodinases which convert the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to the active hormone triiodothyronine (T3). T3 in turn activates the thyroid hormone receptor which increases metabolic rate.[7][8]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000179921 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000064272 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ Kawamata Y, Fujii R, Hosoya M, Harada M, Yoshida H, Miwa M, Fukusumi S, Habata Y, Itoh T, Shintani Y, Hinuma S, Fujisawa Y, Fujino M (2003). "A G protein-coupled receptor responsive to bile acids". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (11): 9435–40. doi:10.1074/jbc.M209706200. PMID 12524422.
  6. ^ "Entrez Gene: GPBAR1 G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1".
  7. ^ Watanabe M, Houten SM, Mataki C, Christoffolete MA, Kim BW, Sato H, Messaddeq N, Harney JW, Ezaki O, Kodama T, Schoonjans K, Bianco AC, Auwerx J (2006). "Bile acids induce energy expenditure by promoting intracellular thyroid hormone activation". Nature. 439 (7075): 484–9. doi:10.1038/nature04330. PMID 16400329.
  8. ^ Baxter JD, Webb P (2006). "Metabolism: bile acids heat things up". Nature. 439 (7075): 402–3. doi:10.1038/439402a. PMID 16437098.

Further reading

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.