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GHS hazard statements

Hazard statements form part of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). They are intended to form a set of standardized phrases about the hazards of chemical substances and mixtures that can be translated into different languages.[1][2] As such, they serve the same purpose as the well-known R-phrases, which they are intended to replace.

Hazard statements are one of the key elements for the labelling of containers under the GHS, along with:[3]

  • an identification of the product
  • one or more hazard pictograms (where necessary)
  • a signal word – either Danger or Warning – where necessary
  • precautionary statements, indicating how the product should be handled to minimize risks to the user (as well as to other people and the general environment)
  • the identity of the supplier (who might be a manufacturer or importer).

Each hazard statement is designated a code, starting with the letter H and followed by three digits. Statements which correspond to related hazards are grouped together by code number, so the numbering is not consecutive. The code is used for reference purposes, for example to help with translations, but it is the actual phrase which should appear on labels and safety data sheets.[4]

Physical hazards

Code Phrase
H200 Unstable explosive
H201 Explosive; mass explosion hazard
H202 Explosive; severe projection hazard
H203 Explosive; fire, blast or projection hazard
H204 Fire or projection hazard
H205 May mass explode in fire
H206 Fire, blast or projection hazard: increased risk of explosion if desensitizing agent is reduced
H207 Fire or projection hazard: increased risk of explosion if desensitizing agent is reduced
H208 Fire hazard: increased risk of explosion if desensitizing agent is reduced
H220 Extremely flammable gas
H221 Flammable gas
H222 Extremely flammable aerosol
H223 Flammable aerosol
H224 Extremely flammable liquid and vapour
H225 Highly flammable liquid and vapour
H226 Flammable liquid and vapour
H227 Combustible liquid
H228 Flammable solid
H229 Pressurized container: may burst if heated
H230 May react explosively even in the absence of air
H231 May react explosively even in the absence of air at elevated pressure and/or temperature
H232 May ignite spontaneously if exposed to air
H240 Heating may cause an explosion
H241 Heating may cause a fire or explosion
H242 Heating may cause a fire
H250 Catches fire spontaneously if exposed to air
H251 Self-heating; may catch fire
H252 Self-heating in large quantities; may catch fire
H260 In contact with water releases flammable gases which may ignite spontaneously
H261 In contact with water releases flammable gas
H270 May cause or intensify fire; oxidizer
H271 May cause fire or explosion; strong oxidizer
H272 May intensify fire; oxidizer
H280 Contains gas under pressure; may explode if heated
H281 Contains refrigerated gas; may cause cryogenic burns or injury
H290 May be corrosive to metals

Health hazards

Code Phrase
H300 Fatal if swallowed.
H301 Toxic if swallowed
H302 Harmful if swallowed
H303 May be harmful if swallowed
H304 May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways
H305 May be harmful if swallowed and enters airways
H310 Fatal in contact with skin
H311 Toxic in contact with skin
H312 Harmful in contact with skin
H313 May be harmful in contact with skin
H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage
H315 Causes skin irritation
H316 Causes mild skin irritation
H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction
H318 Causes serious eye damage
H319 Causes serious eye irritation
H320 Causes eye irritation
H330 Fatal if inhaled
H331 Toxic if inhaled
H332 Harmful if inhaled
H333 May be harmful if inhaled
H334 May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled
H335 May cause respiratory irritation
H336 May cause drowsiness or dizziness
H340 May cause genetic defects
H341 Suspected of causing genetic defects
H350 May cause cancer
H351 Suspected of causing cancer
H360 May damage fertility or the unborn child
H361 Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child
H361d Suspected of damaging the unborn child
H360D May damage the unborn child
H361f Suspected of damaging fertility
H360F may damage fertility
H362 May cause harm to breast-fed children
H370 Causes damage to organs
H371 May cause damage to organs
H372 Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure
H373 May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure
H300+H310 Fatal if swallowed or in contact with skin
H300+H330 Fatal if swallowed or if inhaled
H310+H330 Fatal in contact with skin or if inhaled
H300+H310+H330 Fatal if swallowed, in contact with skin or if inhaled
H301+H311 Toxic if swallowed or in contact with skin
H301+H331 Toxic if swallowed or if inhaled
H311+H331 Toxic in contact with skin or if inhaled
H301+H311+H331 Toxic if swallowed, in contact with skin or if inhaled
H302+H312 Harmful if swallowed or in contact with skin
H302+H332 Harmful if swallowed or if inhaled
H312+H332 Harmful in contact with skin or if inhaled
H302+H312+H332 Harmful if swallowed, in contact with skin or if inhaled
H303+H313 May be harmful if swallowed or in contact with skin
H303+H333 May be harmful if swallowed or if inhaled
H313+H333 May be harmful in contact with skin or if inhaled
H303+H313+H333 May be harmful if swallowed, in contact with skin or if inhaled
H315+H320 Causes skin and eye irritation


Environmental hazards

Code Phrase
H400 Very toxic to aquatic life
H401 Toxic to aquatic life
H402 Harmful to aquatic life
H410 Very toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects
H411 Toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects
H412 Harmful to aquatic life with long-lasting effects
H413 May cause long-lasting harmful effects to aquatic life
H420 Harms public health and the environment by destroying ozone in the upper atmosphere
H433 Harmful to terrestrial vertebrates

Country-specific hazard statements

European Union

The European Union has implemented the GHS through the CLP Regulation. Nevertheless, the older system based on the Dangerous Substances Directive was used in parallel until June 2015. Some R-phrases which do not have simple equivalents under the GHS have been retained under the CLP Regulation:[5] the numbering mirrors the number of the previous R-phrase.

Physical properties

  • EUH001: Explosive when dry
  • EUH006: Explosive with or without contact with air, deleted in the fourth adaptation to technical progress of CLP.
  • EUH014: Reacts violently with water
  • EUH018: In use may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture
  • EUH019: May form explosive peroxides
  • EUH044: Risk of explosion if heated under confinement

Health properties

  • EUH029: Contact with water liberates toxic gas
  • EUH031: Contact with acids liberates toxic gas
  • EUH032: Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas
  • EUH066: Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking
  • EUH070: Toxic by eye contact
  • EUH071: Corrosive to the respiratory tract

Environmental properties

  • EUH059: Hazardous to the ozone layer, superseded by GHS Class 5.1 in the second adaptation to technical progress of CLP.

Other EU hazard statements

Some other hazard statements intended for use in very specific circumstances have also been retained under the CLP Regulation.[6] Note that, in this case, the numbering of the EU specific hazard statements can coincide with GHS hazard statements if the "EU" prefix is not included.

  • EUH201: Contains lead. Should not be used on surfaces liable to be chewed or sucked by children.
    • EUH201A: Warning! Contains lead.
  • EUH202: Cyanoacrylate. Danger. Bonds skin and eyes in seconds. Keep out of the reach of children.
  • EUH203: Contains chromium(VI). May produce an allergic reaction.
  • EUH204: Contains isocyanates. May produce an allergic reaction.
  • EUH205: Contains epoxy constituents. May produce an allergic reaction.
  • EUH206: Warning! Do not use together with other products. May release dangerous gases (chlorine).
  • EUH207: Warning! Contains cadmium. Dangerous fumes are formed during use. See information supplied by the manufacturer. Comply with the safety instructions.
  • EUH208: Contains <name of sensitising substance>. May produce an allergic reaction.
  • EUH209: Can become highly flammable in use.
    • EUH209A: Can become flammable in use.
  • EUH210: Safety data sheet available on request.
  • EUH401: To avoid risks to human health and the environment, comply with the instructions for use.

Australia

The GHS was adopted in Australia from 1 January 2012 and becomes mandatory in States and Territories that have adopted the harmonised Work Health and Safety laws (other than Victoria and Western Australia) as of 1 January 2017.[7] The National Code of Practice for the Preparation of Safety Data Sheets for Hazardous Chemicals [8] includes 12 Australian-specific GHS Hazard Statements, as follows:

Physical hazard statements

  • AUH001: Explosive without moisture
  • AUH006: Explosive with or without contact with air
  • AUH014: Reacts violently with water
  • AUH018: In use, may form a flammable/explosive vapor-air mixture
  • AUH019: May form explosive peroxides
  • AUH044: Risk of explosion if heated under confinement

Human health hazard statements

  • AUH029: Contact with water liberates toxic gas
  • AUH031: Contact with acids liberates toxic gas

Additional non-GHS hazard statements

  • AUH032: Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas
  • AUH066: Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking
  • AUH070: Toxic by eye contact
  • AUH071: Corrosive to the respiratory tract

New Zealand

As of March 2009, the relevant New Zealand regulations under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 do not specify the exact wording required for hazard statements. However, the New Zealand classification system includes three categories of environmental hazard which are not included in the GHS Rev.2:

  • Ecotoxicity to soil environment
  • Ecotoxicity to terrestrial vertebrates
  • Ecotoxicity to terrestrial invertebrates

These are classes 9.2–9.4 respectively of the New Zealand classification scheme, and are divided into subclasses according to the degree of hazard.[9] Substances in subclass 9.2D ("Substances that are slightly harmful in the soil environment") do not require a hazard statement, while substances in the other subclasses require an indication of the general degree of hazard and general type of hazard.[10]

Notes

  1. ^ The United Nations has published the list of GHS hazard statements in all UN official languages (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish): it can be found in Annex 3 of GHS Rev.2 for the corresponding language.
  2. ^ A list of translations into all the European Union official languages can be found in Annex III to the CLP Regulation, on pages 146–91 of the official English-language version for the GHS statements and pages 192–209 for the EU-specific statements.
  3. ^ Part 1, section 1.4.10.5.2, GHS Rev.2
  4. ^ Part 1, section 1.4.10.5.2(b)(ii), GHS Rev.2
  5. ^ Annex III, CLP Regulation, pp. 192–200.
  6. ^ Annex III, CLP Regulation, pp. 200–9.
  7. ^ [www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au]
  8. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-03-04. Retrieved 2016-09-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ Schedule 6, Hazardous Substances (Classification) Regulations 2001
  10. ^ reg. 20, Hazardous Substances (Identification) Regulations 2001

References

External links