This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.
Foreign relations of Australia
Foreign relations of Australia are influenced by its position as a leading trading nation and as a significant donor of humanitarian aid. Australia's foreign policy is guided by a commitment to multilateralism and regionalism, as well as to strong bilateral relations with its allies. Key concerns include free trade, terrorism, refugees, economic co-operation with Asia and stability in the Asia-Pacific. Australia is active in the United Nations and the Commonwealth of Nations. Given its history of starting and supporting important regional and global initiatives, it has been described as a regional middle power par excellence.
It maintains significant ties with ASEAN and has become steadfastly allied with New Zealand, through long-standing ties dating back to the 1800s. The country also has a longstanding alliance with the United States of America. Over recent decades Australia has sought to strengthen its relationship with Asian countries, with this becoming the focus of the country's network of diplomatic missions.
Before the Second World War, the British Government handled most of Australia's foreign policy. The critical decision during the war was to more closely align the military and the diplomacy with the United States. The first accredited diplomat sent to any foreign country was Richard Casey, appointed in January 1940. Since 1941, United States has been the most important ally and trading partner. Australian concluded an agreement in 1944 with New Zealand dealing with the security, welfare, and advancement of the people of the independent territories of the Pacific (the ANZAC pact). After the war, Australia played a role in the Far Eastern Commission in Japan and supported Indonesian independence during that country's revolt against the Dutch (1945–49).
Australia was one of the founders of both the United Nations and the South Pacific Commission (1947), and in 1950, it proposed the Colombo Plan to assist developing countries in Asia. In addition to contributing to UN forces in the Korean War – it was the first country to announce it would do so after the United States – Australia sent troops to assist in putting down the communist revolt in Malaya in 1948–60 and later to combat the Indonesian-supported invasion of Sarawak in 1963–65.
Australia sent troops to repel communism and assist South Vietnamese and American forces in the Vietnam War, in a move that stirred up antiwar activism at home. It joined coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War in 1991. Australia has been active in the Australia – New Zealand – United Kingdom agreement and the Five Power Defence Arrangement—successive arrangements with Britain and New Zealand to ensure the security of Singapore and Malaysia.
In 1999 Australian peace keeping forces intervened in East Timor following its referendum to secede from Indonesia. In 2006 Australia sent a contingent of Australian troops to the state to assist in the 2006 East Timor crisis.
One of the drafters of the UN Charter, Australia has given firm support to the United Nations and its specialised agencies. It was a member of the Security Council in 1986–87, a member of the Economic and Social Council in 1986–89, and a member of the UN Commission on Human Rights in 1994–96. Australia takes a prominent part in many other UN activities, including peacekeeping, disarmament negotiations, and narcotics control.
Papua New Guinea (PNG), a former Australian territory, is the largest recipient of Australian assistance. Starting in 1997–99 Australia contributed to the IMF program for Thailand and assisted Indonesia and PNG with regional environmental crisis and drought relief efforts.
Overall Australia's largest trading partners are the United States, Korea, Japan, China, and the United Kingdom. Australia currently has bilateral Free Trade Agreements with New Zealand, the United States, Thailand and Singapore as of 2007. As well as this, Australia is in the process undertaking studies on Free Trade Agreements with ASEAN, China, Chile, India, Indonesia, and Malaysia.
To bolster its foreign policy, Australia maintains a very well-equipped military,
According to SIPRI, Australia is the sixth largest importer of major weapons in the world. The US supplied 68 per cent of Australia's imports and Spain 19 per cent. Australia is modernising its armed forces but also acquiring weapons that significantly increase its long-range capabilities. Among the weapons imported in 2010–14 were 5 tanker aircraft and the first of 2 amphibious assault ships from Spain, along with 2 large transport aircraft and 4 airborne early warning (AEW) aircraft from the USA. Australia also received 26 combat aircraft from the US, with 82 more on order (see box 3), as well as 8 anti-submarine warfare aircraft from the US and 3 Hobart destroyers from Spain. Australia's imports of major weapons increased 60 percent between 2005–2009 and 2010–14, making it the sixth largest importer in the world according to SIPRI.
Australia has diplomatic representatives in over 90 locations. Australia has official relations with a number of countries. In a number of countries, Australia maintains an embassy, or in the case of Commonwealth countries, a high commission. Australia has consulates in many countries where there are no official government ties in existence, and these serve primarily to assist Australian travellers and business people visiting those countries. A number of Canadian missions provide consular assistance to Australians in countries in Africa where Australia does not maintain an office (and Australia reciprocates this arrangement for Canada in some other countries) through the Canada-Australia Consular Services Sharing Agreement.
Due to the One China Policy of the People's Republic of China, the Australian Office in Taiwan (formerly the Australian Commerce and Industry Office) unofficially represents Australia's interest in Taiwan, serving a function similar to other Australian Consulates.
Ghana has a high commission in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.
Australia's trade relations are modest, valued at A$113 million in 2007, most of that exports to Ghana. Australian mining investment in Ghana has grown in recent years, primarily in the gold mining sector.
Australia also provides foreign aid to Ghana to alleviate poverty, improve the environment and promote human rights.
Australia's relations with Kenya are based on Kenya's key role and position in East Africa and its importance in multilateral bodies such as the United Nations, the Commonwealth and the World Trade Organization.
Australia was a major non-military backer of the revolutionaries during the Libyan Civil War, sending more humanitarian aid to Libya than any other single country after the United States. It was relatively early to recognise the NTC, doing so on 9 June 2011, months before the capture of Tripoli.
This was after years of stressed relations with Libya under the Gaddafi regime. Relations are now improving as a consequence. This was evident in December 2011, when then Australian Foreign Affairs Minister Kevin Rudd travelled to Libya to meet with Libyan Prime Minister Abdurrahim El-Keib. Rudd ceremonially hoisted the flag of Australia at his country's consul-general in Tripoli and pledged Canberra's support for efforts to remove unexploded landmines in Libya, as well as advice on Libya's planned transition to democratic governance.
Australia has modest relations with Somalia despite there not being a central government since 1991.
Australia provided over $61 million to Somalia in 2011 in response to the Horn of Africa humanitarian crisis.
In September 2012 following the election of Hassan Sheikh Ahmed Mohamoud, foreign minister Bob Carr said," Australia shares the cautious optimism of the international community about Somalia's future prospects."
They are both members of multi-national groups such as the G20 and Cairns Group and share common interests in many issues such as Antarctica and international peacekeeping. There is significant trade and investment between the two countries.
Argentina has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.
Australia is accredited to Barbados from its high commission in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.
Barbados is accredited to Australia from its High Commission in Ottawa, Canada.
Barbados and Australia established diplomatic relations on 7 January 1974. Both Barbados and Australia are current members of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, and comprised as former parts of the British Empire.
Bolivia and Australia work together on a wide variety of issues. There is investment in mining services and technology. Bolivia and Australia are part of the Cairns Group. Still trade is quite small. In 2002 The Hon Mark Vaile visited Santa Cruz for the Cairns Group meeting.
Australia is accredited to Bolivia from its embassy in Lima, Peru and maintains an honorary consulate in La Paz.
Bolivia is accredited to Australia from its embassy in Ottawa, Canada.
During the Australian gold rush of the 1850s, Chile became one of Australia's major food suppliers. After 1866, however, interaction and trade was minimal. Today both are members of the APEC the Cairns Group.
Australia and Colombia are part of the Cairns Group. Colombia reopened its embassy in Canberra in 2008, Australia established an honorary consulate in Bogotá in 1989 and opened a resident embassy in Bogotá in 2017. Colombia and Australia have a growing trade relationship in mining and Agriculture. Both armies fought alongside each other in the Korean war. A total of 6 Australia–Colombia bilateral treaties, all extended to Australia by the British Empire, are in force with Colombia, covering trade, arbitration and extradition.
Official relations began in January 1989. Cuba opened an embassy in Australia on 24 October 2008. The relations between the countries were given a fresh new start in 2009, when the foreign minister at the time Stephen Smith visited Cuba. Foreign Minister of Cuba Bruno Rodriguez, visited Australia as a guest of government in 2010. There are only two Australia–Cuba bilateral treaties, extended to Australia by the British Empire covering extradition.
Australia is accredited to Cuba from its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico.
Cuba has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.
Australia is accredited to Ecuador from its embassy in Santiago, Chile.
Ecuador has an embassy in Canberra.
Trade between the two countries is small but is increasing and there are future opportunities to strengthen trade and investment. A number of Australia–Ecuador bilateral treaties have been agreed between the two countries - such as extradition.
The two APEC members Australia and Mexico celebrated the 40th anniversary of diplomatic relations in 2006. Cooperation expansions recently has resulted in several commercial outcomes, including bilateral double taxation agreements signed in 2004, a memorandum of understanding on mining (MOU) in 2002, an MOU on Training and Education signed in 2003 an MOU on energy in 2005 and in August 2005 an MOU on investment protection and promotion agreement. Two-way trade is worth A$3 billion.
Australia's relations with Paraguay are growing. In 2011, Paraguay opened an embassy in Canberra, Australia opened a consulate in Asunción. As agricultural producers and exporters, they work together to achieve fairer international trade in agricultural products through membership of the Cairns Group and co-operation in other multilateral fora. Australia is also increasing its engagement with Paraguay through development co-operation and people-to-people exchanges. An increasing number of Paraguayan students are pursuing their education at Australian institutions.
Australia is accredited to Paraguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
The two APEC members have worked together on a wide range of issues. The two countries have mutual interests. In 2006 the Australian Bureau of Meteorology signed a memorandum of understanding to help with the El Niño and La Niña weather patterns. Another memorandum of understanding was signed on co-operation with education. With goodwill the Peruvian congress signed a Peru Australia Friendship league in 2004. Trade ties are strong and are growing. Many big mining companies have offices in Peru.
While Australia has emphasised its relationship with the United States since 1942, as Britain's influence in Asia declined. At the governmental level, United-States-Australia relations are formalized by the ANZUS treaty and the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement.
The first Armenians migrated to Australia in the 1850s, during the gold rush.
The majority came to Australia in the 1960s, starting with the Armenians of Egypt after Nasser came to power then, in the early 1970s, from Cyprus after the Turkish occupation of the island and from 1975 until 1992, a period of civil unrest in Lebanon.
Person-to-person governmental links are increasing although they are still modest. In September 2003, The Hon Mr Philip Ruddock MP visited Armenia in his former capacity as Australian Minister for Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs. In October 2005, the Armenian Foreign Minister, H.E. Mr Vardan Oskanyan, visited Australia. In November 2005, The Hon Mr Joe Hockey MP, Minister for Human Services, visited Armenia.
The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia has not passed a motion recognising the mass murder of Armenians in 1915 as genocide, although the State of NSW has done so. The Australian Government elections of 2007 created an atmosphere in which the Opposition Labor party declared it will push for the Recognition of the Armenian Genocide in Australian Parliament if Labor wins the Elections.
China has an embassy in Canberra and a consulates-general in Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney.
In July 2019, the UN ambassadors from 22 nations, including Australia, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC condemning China’s mistreatment of the Uyghurs as well as its mistreatment of other minority groups, urging the Chinese government to close the Xinjiang re-education camps.
Australia and East Timor are near neighbours with close political and trade ties. East Timor, one of the poorest countries in Asia, lies about 610 kilometres (380 mi) northwest of the Australian city of Darwin and Australia has played a prominent role in the young republic's history. Australia led the military force that helped stabilise the country after it chose independence from Indonesia in 1999 and has been a major source of aid since.
India established diplomatic relations with Australia in 1941, six years before its independence. The Australian Government subsequently supported the independence of India and Pakistan from the British Empire.
India and Australia share close historical ties, with both countries being former British colonies and members of the Commonwealth of Nations. They also share close sporting ties, with both countries sharing their passion for cricket. They also compete against each other in field hockey and in the Commonwealth Games.
Economic relations between the two nations is strong, with India being Australia's fourth largest export partner and the eighth largest trading partner.
In 1963 Australia provide defence aid to India in the face of Chinese action.
Since Indonesian independence, the two countries have maintained mutual diplomatic relations, formalised co-operation (especially in the fields of fisheries conservation, law enforcement, and justice co-operation), a measure of security co-operation, broadening treaty relationships, co-membership of regional forums, and co-participation in several multilateral Treaties of significance.
Recent years have seen a deepening of Australia's aid commitment to Indonesia, and Australia has become a popular venue for Indonesian students.
In 2008–09 Indonesia is the largest recipient of Australian aid at a value of $462 million.
Australia and Iraq have had varying relations since 1938, improving following the fall of Saddam Hussein in 2003.
Australia provides foreign aid; there is also a modest trade relationship that both countries strive to enlarge in the coming years.
A sizeable Iraqi community lives in Australia.
In 2009 Nouri al-Maliki became the first Iraqi prime minister to visit Australia. He and then Australian prime minister Kevin Rudd signed a declaration to increase co-operation and to strengthen trade and investment ties.
Australia-Japan relations are generally warm, substantial and driven by mutual interests, and have expanded beyond strong economic and commercial links to other spheres, including culture, tourism, defence and scientific co-operation.
Australia and Kazakhstan relations began in 1992. Australia opened an embassy in Almaty in 1995, which closed in 1999 due to resource constraints. Kazakhstan opened a Consulate-General in Sydney in 2015. There have been a number of high level visits between the two countries to sign co-operation agreements: Prime Minister Sergey Tereshchenko visited Australia in 1993; Governor-General Bill Hayden visited Kazakhstan in 1993; President Nursultan Nazarbayev visited Australia in 1996. The countries signed an agreement on economic and commercial cooperation, which came into force on 2 June 2004. Trade relations are modest.
See Australia–Mongolia relations
Australia and Mongolia established relations in 1972. Relations have grown stronger in recent years with free-market reforms in Mongolia and high-profile visits from leaders of both countries. Trade between the two countries is small but mainly based on mining and there have been steps to grow this. Australia provides foreign aid to Mongolia.
Australia and Nepal have had diplomatic relations for over 50 years. They have a modest trade relationship but Australia provides more foreign aid than exports. Australia has a few points of interest such as in tourism, commerce and education.
Diplomatic relations are stressed due to North Korea's nuclear weapons program. Since October 2006 visas have not been issued for North Korean citizens and North Korean ships have been banned from Australia's ports. Economically, relations are more modest; North Korea ranks 125th in the order of Australia's trade partners, with two-way trade valued between A$6–11 million.
On 22 April, North Korea threatened Australia with a nuclear strike.
The relations between the two countries have been friendly, with former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf having visited Australia in 2005 and the former Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard, also having extended a visit to Pakistan in 2005 as well, following the 2005 Kashmir earthquake which had immensely targeted the northern areas of Pakistan. He also announced 500 new scholarships for students in Pakistan to study in Australia.
A large number of Saudi students choose to study in Australia, mostly under the King Abdullah Scholarship Program. In 2009, 12,500 Saudi students enrolled in Australian educational institutions.
Australians in Saudi Arabia are a sizeable community consisting mainly of up to 5,000 with the majority based in major commercial centres such as Riyadh and Jeddah.
A Memorandum of Understanding was signed in Canberra between Australia-Saudi Business Council
Official Press Agency stated on Apr,14,2015 that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Australia are Discussing Developing Cooperation Ties
Bilateral relations between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Australia have improved and progressed significantly in recent years and moved from normal relations to relations of mutual trust and partnership in various fields.
Bilateral relations are generally warm, supported by trade, investment flows, education, immigration and other development co-operations. Australia is also a member in helping the economic and social development of Sri Lanka.
In 2007 a two-way trade agreement was created between Australia and Sri Lanka valued at $232 million a year. The trade agreement includes exports from Australia such as vegetables and dairy products. Tea and other foods, textiles, clothing, rubber, iron and steel which are the main imports from Sri Lanka.
In 2008–09 the estimated budget for aid to Sri Lanka is $27 million.
Both countries have a growing bilateral commercial relationship, going back to World War One when they entered after Belgium was invaded by Germany.
They share similar approaches to many international issues, including arms control, whaling and Antarctica.
Trade and investment relations are very significant. In 2012, total Belgian investment in Australia was valued at A$6.4 billion, and Australian investment in Belgium totalled $2 billion. In 2012, Belgium was ranked as Australia's 24th largest merchandise trading partner.
Australia recognised Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1992 and established diplomatic relations in 1994.
Australia has a consulate in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Canberra.
Australia has a continuing interest in efforts to maintain peace and build prosperity in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Since 1993–94, Australia has contributed humanitarian assistance worth over A$17 million to countries in the Balkans, including to Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Australia was among the first countries to re-recognise Estonia's independence on 27 August 1991. Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on 21 November 1991. Australia has an embassy in Tallinn. Estonia is represented in Australia through its embassy in Canberra and four honorary consulates (in Claremont, Hobart, Melbourne and Sydney). Australia is host to one of the largest communities of Estonians abroad, with 8,232 people identifying as Estonian in the 2006 Australian Census.
Diplomatic relations were established on 31 May 1949.
Australia is represented in Finland through its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden, and through an honorary consulate in Helsinki. Finland has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate in Sydney.
Since the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Holy See in 1973, Australia has maintained a non-resident Head of Mission, based in another European capital, as well as an office at the Holy See, headed by a Counsellor.
The Holy See has maintained an Apostolic Nunciature in Canberra since 1973.
On 21 July 2008, the Australian Government announced that it would appoint for the first time a resident Ambassador to the Holy See – the Hon Tim Fischer AC. According to the Australian Foreign Ministry, this marked a significant deepening of Australia's relations with the Vatican since it would allow Australia to expand dialogue with the Vatican in areas including human rights, political and religious freedom, inter-faith dialogue, food security, arms control, refugees and anti-people trafficking, and climate change. Mr Fischer commenced his appointment on 30 January 2009 and presented credentials to Pope Benedict XVI on 12 February 2009.
The Australian Prime Minister, Mr Rudd, visited the Pope Benedict XVI and met the Vatican's Secretary of State on 9 July 2009.
The Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs, the Hon Stephen Smith MP, met HE Archbishop Dominique Mamberti, the Holy See's Secretary for Relations with States on 3 December 2008 during his visit to Oslo to sign the Convention on Cluster Munitions. The Holy See played a facilitating role in relation to the Oslo process as a member of the Core Group of States.
Hungary has an embassy in Canberra, a consulate general in Sydney and four honorary consulate (in Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Perth).
There are 67,000 people of Hungarian ancestry living in Australia, many Hungarian-Australians have been active in the fields of business, academia, politics and the arts such as Nick Greiner, Frank Lowy, Judy Cassab, and Les Murray
In recent years there have been several high-level visits to strengthen relations.
Poland has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.
170,000 people of Polish ancestry live in Australia. The Polish community is active in promoting people-to-people contact and commercial and academic ties through a number of community organisations, bilateral business councils and institutes.
Australian investment in Poland is valued at around A$570 million.
Australia has a non-resident ambassador in its embassy in Belgrade (Serbia), and has a consulate general in Bucharest.
Romania has an embassy in Canberra and a general consulate in Sydney.
Romania and Australia have concluded an Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement, signed in 1994, a Trade and Economic Agreement (signed with full effect for Australia in July 2002 and for Romania in January 2003) and an Agreement for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion, signed in 2001.
Ukraine opened an embassy in Canberra in March 2003.
Australia is accredited to Ukraine from its embassy in Vienna, Austria.
The 2006 Census recorded 13,665 Ukrainian-born persons in Australia. Most Ukrainian migrants to Australia arrived in the post-World War II period.
The small but active Ukrainian community in Australia plays an important role in developing bilateral relations. In 2002 the Australian Federation of Ukrainian Organisations helped establish Ukrainian-Australian House in Kyiv to promote commercial ties.
British-Australian relations are close, marked by shared history, culture, institutions and language, extensive people-to-people links, aligned security interests, and vibrant trade and investment co-operation.
Australia's approach to the Pacific has included frequent references to what it has perceived as an "Arc of Instability" among its island neighbours. In August 2006 Australian Defence Minister Brendan Nelson stated to the Australian Parliament:
We cannot afford to have failing states in our region. The so-called 'arc of instability', which basically goes from East Timor through to the south-west Pacific states, means that not only does Australia have a responsibility in preventing and indeed assisting with humanitarian and disaster relief, but also that we cannot allow any of these countries to become havens for transnational crime, nor indeed havens for terrorism.
As from early 2008, the Australian government led by Kevin Rudd began what it called a "new approach" to relations between Australia and the Pacific, appointing a Parliamentary Secretary for Pacific Island Affairs, Duncan Kerr. In February, Kerr and fellow Parliamentary Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Bob McMullan visited Samoa, Tonga and Kiribati in February, and stated:
"Broadly, the approach is one of much more partnership and engagement on the basis of mutual respect. We're not going to be lecturing or hectoring, we're going to try and work together with them and I think we set a pretty good standard with the way we started. The relationships we've established with ministers and leaders in those countries [Kiribati, Tonga and Samoa] is very positive."
Relations with Fiji are strained due to Australia's condemnation of the military coup which overthrew the government of Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase in December 2006. Military leader and "interim Prime Minister" Voreqe Bainimarama accused Australia of "bullying" Fiji by applying sanctions and insisting on a swift return to a democratic government. In March 2008 the Fiji Human Rights Commission published a report which alleged that Australia might have been planning an armed intervention in Fiji in late 2006. Australian Foreign Minister Stephen Smith dismissed the allegations, and stated: "The best thing that can happen in Fiji is not spurious suggestions about Australian activity but having an election, returning Fiji to democracy, respecting human rights".
On 4 November 2009, Fijian military leader, Voreqe (Frank) Bainimarama, expelled the Australian high commissioner James Batley and his New Zealand counterpart. He said that Australia and New Zealand had tried to undermine Fiji's judiciary and weaken its economy. New Zealand and Australia disputed key aspects of Fiji's claims. In response, Australia quickly expelled Fiji's acting high commissioner, Kamlesh Kumar Arya.
Australian-Nauruan relations go back almost a century. Australia administered Nauru as a dependent territory from 1914 to 1968, and has remained one of Nauru's foremost economic and aid partners thereafter.
Relations between Australia and Nauru were essentially framed by the Pacific Solution, whereby Nauru housed a detention centre for unauthorised refugee applicants who had attempted to enter Australia, and Australia provided financial aid in return. The detention centre was closed by Australia in February 2008, causing Nauru to express concern regarding the future of its economy.
The relationship between Australia and New Zealand is exceptionally close on both the national and interpersonal scales. This close relationship goes back to the time of the first World War and the ANZAC Spirit forged at Gallipoli. Former New Zealand Prime Minister Mike Moore declared that Australians and New Zealanders have more in common than New Yorkers and Californians.
Papua New Guinea is Australia's closest neighbour, and former dependent territory. Relations between Canberra and Port Moresby are close, although there have been tensions in recent years. Papua New Guinea has developed much closer relations with Australia than with Indonesia, the only country it shares a border with. The two countries are Commonwealth realms, and Papua New Guinea benefits from economic development aid from Australia.
Under the government of John Howard, Australia's relations with Manasseh Sogavare's Solomon Islands were strained, primarily because of the "Julian Moti affair". Sogavare notably accused Australia of conducting neo-colonialism in the Solomons via RAMSI. On 1 October 2007, the Solomon Islands' Foreign Affairs Minister Patteson Oti addressed the General Assembly of the United Nations, and accused Australia of undermining his country's sovereignty:
Mine is too nationalistic a government to become captive to the fortunes which justify our perpetual retention under siege. My [country's government] remain[s] unmoved by Australian resistance to our attempts to reclaim our sovereignty and independence.
This led Australia to exercise its right of reply, denying the accusation. Relations subsequently improved when both Howard and Sogavare lost office in December 2007, and their successors -Kevin Rudd and Derek Sikua- immediately set out to improve relations between Canberra and Honiara.
^1111, Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, R.G. Casey Building, John McEwen Crescent, Barton ACT 0221 Australia Tel: +61 2 6261. "Search results". protocol.dfat.gov.au. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
^1111, Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, R.G. Casey Building, John McEwen Crescent, Barton ACT 0221 Australia Tel: +61 2 6261. "Search results". protocol.dfat.gov.au. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
^Chris Merritt and Patrick Walters, 'Fiji Expels High Commissioner',The Australian 4 November 2009, 
^Samantha Maiden, 'Australia expels top Fiji Diplomat in retaliation move', The Australian, 4 November 2009, 
^"NZ, Australia 'should consider merger'". Sydney Morning Herald. 4 December 2006. Retrieved 20 March 2008. The House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs [found] "While Australia and New Zealand are of course two sovereign nations, it seems to the committee that the strong ties between the two countries – the economic, cultural, migration, defence, governmental and people-to-people linkages – suggest that an even closer relationship, including the possibility of union, is both desirable and realistic,"