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Foreign relations of Angola

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This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Angola

The foreign relations of Angola are based on Angola's strong support of U.S. foreign policy as the Angolan economy is dependent on U.S. foreign aid.

From 1975 to 1989, Angola was aligned with the Eastern bloc, in particular the Soviet Union, Libya, and Cuba. Since then, it has focused on improving relationships with Western countries, cultivating links with other Portuguese-speaking countries, and asserting its own national interests in Central Africa through military and diplomatic intervention. In 1993, it established formal diplomatic relations with the United States. It has entered the Southern African Development Community as a vehicle for improving ties with its largely Anglophone neighbors to the south. Zimbabwe and Namibia joined Angola in its military intervention in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where Angolan troops remain in support of the Joseph Kabila government. It also has intervened in the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville) to support the existing government in that country.

Since 1998, Angola has successfully worked with the United Nations Security Council to impose and carry out sanctions on UNITA. More recently, it has extended those efforts to controls on conflict diamonds, the primary source of revenue for UNITA during the Civil War that ended in 2002. At the same time, Angola has promoted the revival of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP) as a forum for cultural exchange and expanding ties with Portugal (its former ruler) and Brazil (which shares many cultural affinities with Angola) in particular. Angola is a member of the Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa (PMAESA).

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Cape Verde December 1975 See Angola–Cape Verde relations

Cape Verde signed a friendship accord with Angola in December 1975, shortly after Angola gained its independence. Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau served as stop-over points for Cuban troops on their way to Angola to fight UNITA rebels and South African troops. Prime Minister Pedro Pires sent FARP soldiers to Angola where they served as the personal bodyguards of Angolan President José Eduardo dos Santos.[1]

  • Angola has an embassy in Praia.
  • Cape Verde has an embassy in Luanda.
 Democratic Republic of Congo

Many thousands of Angolans fled the country after the civil war. More than 20,000 people were forced to leave the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2009, an action the DR Congo said was in retaliation for regular expulsion of Congolese diamond miners who were in Angola illegally. Angola sent a delegation to DR Congo's capital Kinshasa and succeeded in stopping government-forced expulsions which had become a "tit-for-tat"[2] immigration dispute. "Congo and Angola have agreed to suspend expulsions from both sides of the border," said Lambert Mende, DR Congo information minister, in October 2009.[3] "We never challenged the expulsions themselves; we challenged the way they were being conducted — all the beating of people and looting their goods, even sometimes their clothes," Mende said.[2]

 Equatorial Guinea
  • Angola has an embassy in Malabo.
  • Equatorial Guinea has an embassy in Luanda.
 Ethiopia
 Guinea-Bissau

Following a request by the government of Guinea-Bissau, Angola sent there a contingent of about 300 troops meant to help putting an end to the political-military unrest in that country, and to reorganize the local military forces. In fact, these troops were perceived as a kind of Pretorian Guard for the ruling party, PAIGC. In the beginning of April 2012, when a new military Coup d'état was under preparation, the Angolan regime decided to withdraw its military mission from Guinea-Bissau.

  • Angola has an embassy in Bissau.
  • Guinea-Bissau has an embassy in Luanda.
 Kenya See Angola–Kenya relations
  • Angola has an embassy in Nairobi.
  • Kenya is accredited to Angola from its High Commission in Windhoek, Namibia.
 Mozambique 1975
  • Angola has an embassy in Maputo.
  • Mozambique has an embassy in Luanda.
 Namibia See Angola–Namibia relations

Namibia borders Angola to the south. In 1999 Namibia signed a mutual defense pact with its northern neighbor Angola.[4] This affected the Angolan Civil War that had been ongoing since Angola's independence in 1975. Namibia's ruling party SWAPO sought to support the ruling party MPLA in Angola against the rebel movement UNITA, whose stronghold is in southern Angola, bordering to Namibia. The defence pact allowed Angolan troops to use Namibian territory when attacking Jonas Savimbi's UNITA.

 Nigeria See Angola–Nigeria relations

Angolan-Nigerian relations are primarily based on their roles as oil exporting nations. Both are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, the African Union and other multilateral organizations.

 São Tomé and Príncipe
  • Angola has an embassy in São Tomé.
  • São Tomé and Príncipe has an embassy in Luanda.
 South Africa See Angola–South Africa relations

Angola-South Africa relations are quite strong as the ruling parties in both nations, the African National Congress in South Africa and the MPLA in Angola, fought together during the Angolan Civil War and South African Border War. They fought against UNITA rebels, based in Angola, and the apartheid-era government in South Africa who supported them. Nelson Mandela mediated between the MPLA and UNITA factions during the last years of Angola's civil war.

 Zimbabwe See Angola–Zimbabwe relations

Angola-Zimbabwe relations have remained cordial since the birth of both states, Angola in 1975 and Zimbabwe in 1979, during the Cold War. While Angola's foreign policy shifted to a pro-U.S. stance based on substantial economic ties, under the rule of President Robert Mugabe Zimbabwe's ties with the West soured in the late 1990s.

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 2 September 1977
 Brazil November 1975 See Angola–Brazil relations

Commercial and economic ties dominate the relations of each country. Parts of both countries were part of the Portuguese Empire from the early 16th century until Brazil's independence in 1822. As of November 2007, "trade between the two countries is booming as never before"[5]

 Belize 2001

Both countries established diplomatic relations on January 25, 2001.[6]

 Canada 1978

Canada-Angola relations were established in 1978, and Canada is accredited to Angola from its Embassy in Harare, Zimbabwe. Ties have grown since the end of the civil war in 2002, with increased engagement in areas of mutual interest. As Chair of the United Nations Security Council's Angola Sanctions Committee, Canada limited the ability of UNITA to continue its military campaign, sanctions helped to bring a ceasefire agreement to end Angola's conflict.

  • Angola is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
  • Canada has an Honorary Consul in Luanda.
 Cuba See Angola–Cuba relations

During Angola's civil war Cuban forces fought to install a Marxist–Leninist MPLA-PT government, against Western-backed UNITA and FLNA guerrillas and the South-African army.[7]

  • Angola has an embassy in Havana.
  • Cuba has an embassy in Luanda.
 Ecuador
  • Angola is accredited to Ecuador from its embassy in Brasilia, Brazil.
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Luanda.
 Guyana 24 July 1977

Both countries established diplomatic relations on July 24, 1977.[8]

 Mexico January 1976 See Angola–Mexico relations
  • Angola is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
  • Mexico is accredited to Angola from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa[9] and has an honorary consulate in Luanda.[10]
 United States See Angola–United States relations
Embassy of Angola in Washington, D.C.

From the mid-1980s through at least 1992, the United States was the primary source of military and other support for the UNITA rebel movement, which was led from its creation through 2002 by Jonas Savimbi. The U.S. refused to recognize Angola diplomatically during this period.

Relations between the United States of America and the Republic of Angola (formerly the People's Republic of Angola) have warmed since Angola's ideological renunciation of Communism before the 1992 elections.

 Uruguay See Angola–Uruguay relations
  • Angola is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Brasilia, Brazil.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Luanda.
 Venezuela
  • Angola has a consulate-general in Caracas.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Luanda.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia 3 October 1994
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 October 1994.
 China See Angola–China relations

Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao visited Angola in June 2006, offering a US$9 billion loan for infrastructure improvements in return for petroleum. The PRC has invested heavily in Angola since the end of the civil war in 2002.[12] João Manuel Bernardo, the current ambassador of Angola to China, visited the PRC in November 2007.[13]

In February 2006, Angola surpassed Saudi Arabia to become the number one supplier of oil to China.[3] [4]

 East Timor
  • Angola is accredited to East Timor from its embassy in Singapore.
  • East Timor has an embassy in Luanda.
 Israel See Angola–Israel relations

Angola-Israel relations, primarily based on trade and pro-United States foreign policies, are excellent. In March 2006, the trade volume between the two countries amounted to $400 million. The Israeli ambassador to Angola is Avraham Benjamin.[1] In 2005, President José Eduardo dos Santos visited Israel.

 Japan September 1976 See Angola–Japan relations

Diplomatic relations between Japan and Angola were established in September 1976. Japan maintains an embassy at Luanda and Angola has an embassy in Tokyo.[14] As of 2007, economic relations played "a fundamental role in the bilateral relations between the two governments". Japan has donated towards demining following the civil war.[15]

 Pakistan

The Government of Angola called for the support of Pakistan for the candidature of Angola to the seat of non-permanent member of the UN Security Council, whose election is set for September this year, during the 69th session of the General Assembly of United Nations. On the fringes of the ceremony, the Angolan diplomat also met with officials in charge of the economic and commercial policy of Pakistan, to assess the business opportunities between the two states. It asked to discuss aspects related to the cooperation on several domains of common interest.

 South Korea 6 January 1992

Establishment of diplomatic relations 6 January 1992. The number of South Koreans living in Angola in 2011 was 279.[16]

 Vietnam August 1971 See Angola–Vietnam relations

Angola-Vietnam relations were established in August 1971, four years before Angola gained its independence, when future President of Angola Agostinho Neto visited Vietnam.[17] Angola and Vietnam have steadfast partners as both transitioned from Cold War-era foreign policies of international communism to pro-Western pragmatism following the fall of the Soviet Union.

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Bulgaria 20 November 1975
  • Date started: 1975-11-20
  • Since 1976, Bulgaria has an embassy in Luanda.[18]
  • Angola is accredited to Bulgaria from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
 Denmark
 France See Angola–France relations

Relations between the two countries have not always been cordial due to the former French government's policy of supporting militant separatists in Angola's Cabinda province and the international Angolagate scandal embarrassed both governments by exposing corruption and illicit arms deals. Following French President Nicolas Sarkozy's visit in 2008, relations have improved.

  Holy See 14 April 1975
 Poland
  • Angola has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Luanda.
 Portugal 11 November 1975 See Angola–Portugal relations

Angola-Portugal relations have significantly improved since the Angolan government abandoned communism and nominally embraced democracy in 1991, embracing a pro-U.S. and to a lesser degree pro-Europe foreign policy. Portugal ruled Angola for 400 years,[21] colonizing the territory from 1483 until independence in 1975. Angola's war for independence did not end in a military victory for either side, but was suspended as a result of a coup in Portugal that replaced the Caetano regime.

  • Angola has an embassy in Lisbon and consulates-general in Faro and Porto.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Luanda and a consulate-general in Benguela.
 Russia See Angola–Russia relations

Russia has an embassy in Luanda. Angola has an embassy in Moscow and an honorary consulate in Saint Petersburg. Angola and the precursor to Russia, the Soviet Union, established relations upon Angola's independence.

 Serbia See Angola–Serbia relations
  • Serbia is represented in Angola through its embassy in Luanda.
  • Angola is represented in Serbia, through its embassy in Belgrade.

The Defence Minister of Serbia, Dragan Šutanovac, stated in a 2011 meeting in Luanda that Serbia would negotiate with the Angolan military authorities for the construction of a new military hospital in Angola.[22]

Angola supports Serbia's stance on Kosovo, and recognizes Serbia's territorial integrity.[23]

 Spain 19 October 1977 See Angola–Spain relations
  • Angola has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Luanda.
 United Kingdom
  • Angola has an embassy in London.
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Luanda.

See also

References

  1. ^ Lobban, Richard (1995). Cape Verde:Crioulo Colony to Independent Nation. pp. 111–112.
  2. ^ a b Bearak, Barry (13 October 2009). "Congo and Angola Agree to End Expulsions". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
  3. ^ "Congo and Angola 'end expulsions'". BBC News. London. 13 October 2009. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
  4. ^ William, Vincent. "Namibia: Situation Report" (PDF). United Nations High Commission on Refugees. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
  5. ^ ANGOLA-BRAZIL: Portuguese - the Common Language of Trade Archived 4 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine by Mario de Queiroz, ipsnews.net, 13 November 2007
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ Piero Gleijeses, Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington and Africa, 1959–1976 ISBN 978-0-8078-5464-8
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ "Inicio". embamex.sre.gob.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  10. ^ "CONSULADO HONORARIO DE MEXICO EN LUANDA". consuladohonorario-mx.co.ao. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  11. ^ "U.S. Embassy in Angola". U.S. Embassy in Angola. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  12. ^ "Angola: China's African foothold". BBC News. London. 20 June 2006. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
  13. ^ "Angola: Ambassador Considers Relations With China Excellent". Angola Press Agency via AllAfrica. 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
  14. ^ "Japan-Angola Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (in Japanese). Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  15. ^ "Angola: Japan grants USD one million to boost demining activity". ReliefWeb. 26 May 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  16. ^ Korea, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of. "Countries and Regions > Middle East and Africa > List of the Countries". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Korea (in Korean). Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  17. ^ "Vietnam – Angola Relations". Embassy of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in Angola. 2007. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2008.
  18. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Luanda
  19. ^ "Angola EMB". www.angolaemb.se. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  20. ^ "Apostolic Nunciature Angola". GCatholic.org. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  21. ^ Alker, Hayward R.; Ted Robert Gurr; Kumar Rupesinghe (2001). Journeys Through Conflict: Narratives and Lessons. p. 204.
  22. ^ "Angola: Serbia Negotiates Building of New Military Hospital". Angola Press Agency (Luanda). 23 September 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  23. ^ Angola: Head of State Sends Message to Serbian Counterpart, Angola Press Agency, 2008-06-24

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website [www.cia.gov].