|First Aceh Expedition|
General J.H.R. Köhler killed in Mesigit
|Netherlands||Sultanate of Aceh|
|Commanders and leaders|
|J.H.R. Köhler †||
Sultan Alauddin Mahmud Syah II
Early in 1873, the American Consul in Singapore had discussions with an Achenese emissary about a possible Acehnese-American treaty, which the Dutch saw as justification for intervention. In March 1873, the Dutch bombed the Acehnese capital Banda Aceh (Kutaraja) and in April they landed 3,000 troops led by Johan Harmen Rudolf Köhler. Having misjudged their Acehnese opposition, the Dutch were forced to withdraw losing Köhler and eighty men. They then established a blockade and Acehnese troops (estimates of whom range from 10,000 to 100,000) prepared for battle.
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