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Filozoa

Filozoans
Elephant-ear-sponge.jpg
Orange elephant ear sponge, Agelas clathrodes, in foreground. Two corals in the background: a sea fan, Iciligorgia schrammi, and a sea rod, Plexaurella nutans.
Scientific classification edit
(unranked): Unikonta
(unranked): Obazoa
(unranked): Opisthokonta
(unranked): Holozoa
(unranked): Filozoa
Shalchian-Tabrizi et al., 2008
Subgroups

The Filozoa are a monophyletic grouping within the Opisthokonta. They include animals and their nearest unicellular relatives (those organisms which are more closely related to animals than to fungi or Mesomycetozoa).[1]

Three groups are currently assigned to the clade Filozoa:

Etymology

From Latin filum meaning "thread" and Greek zōion meaning "animal".

Phylogeny

A phylogenetic tree is[2][3][4] The holomycota tree is following Tedersoo et al.[5]

Opisthokonta
Holomycota
Cristidiscoidea

Fonticulida

Nucleariida Nuclearia sp Nikko.jpg

Fungi/

BCG2

True Fungi Asco1013.jpg

Aphelida

BCG1

Rozellomyceta/

Rozella Rozella allomycis2.jpg

Namako-37

MicrosporidiaFibrillanosema spore.jpg

Cryptomycota
Opisthosporidia
Holozoa

Ichthyosporea Abeoforma whisleri-2.jpg

Pluriformea

Syssomonas

Corallochytrium Corallochytrium limacisporum.png

Filozoa

Filasterea Ministeria vibrans.jpeg

Choanozoa

Choanoflagellatea Desmarella moniliformis.jpg

Animalia Mola mola.jpg

950 mya
1100 mya
1300 mya

Characteristics

The ancestral opisthokont cell is assumed to have possessed slender filose (thread-like) projections or 'tentacles'. In some opisthokonts (Mesomycetozoa and Corallochytrium) these were lost. They are retained in Filozoa, where they are simple and non-tapering, with a rigid core of actin bundles (contrasting with the flexible, tapering and branched filopodia of nucleariids and the branched rhizoids and hyphae of fungi). In choanoflagellates and in the most primitive animals, namely sponges, they aggregate into a filter-feeding collar around the cilium or flagellum; this is thought to be an inheritance from their most recent common filozoan ancestor.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b Shalchian-Tabrizi K.; Minge M.A.; Espelund M.; et al. (7 May 2008). Aramayo, Rodolfo, ed. "Multigene phylogeny of choanozoa and the origin of animals". PLoS ONE. 3 (5): e2098. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002098. PMC 2346548. PMID 18461162. open access publication – free to read
  2. ^ Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Lahr, Daniel J. G.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Katz, Laura A. (16 August 2011). "Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (33): 13624–13629. doi:10.1073/pnas.1110633108. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 3158185. PMID 21810989.
  3. ^ Hehenberger, Elisabeth; Tikhonenkov, Denis V.; Kolisko, Martin; Campo, Javier del; Esaulov, Anton S.; Mylnikov, Alexander P.; Keeling, Patrick J. (10 July 2017). "Novel Predators Reshape Holozoan Phylogeny and Reveal the Presence of a Two-Component Signaling System in the Ancestor of Animals". Current Biology. 27 (13): 2043–2050.e6. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.06.006. PMID 28648822.
  4. ^ Adl, Sina M.; Bass, David; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Schoch, Conrad L.; Smirnov, Alexey; Agatha, Sabine; Berney, Cedric; Brown, Matthew W. (2018-09-26). "Revisions to the Classification, Nomenclature, and Diversity of Eukaryotes". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. doi:10.1111/jeu.12691. ISSN 1066-5234.
  5. ^ Tedersoo, Leho; Sánchez-Ramírez, Santiago; Kõljalg, Urmas; Bahram, Mohammad; Döring, Markus; Schigel, Dmitry; May, Tom; Ryberg, Martin; Abarenkov, Kessy (2018). "High-level classification of the Fungi and a tool for evolutionary ecological analyses". Fungal Diversity. 90 (1): 135–159. doi:10.1007/s13225-018-0401-0. ISSN 1560-2745.