This is a
family tree of Chinese kings before the establishment of the title emperor ( ) by 皇帝 Shi Huangdi.
Chinese emperors family tree (ancient) → Chinese emperors family tree (early) → Chinese emperors family tree (middle) → Chinese emperors family tree (late)
Five Emperors were traditionally regarded as the founders of the Chinese state. The states that Records of the Grand Historian Shaohao did not accede to the throne while Emperor Zhi’s ephemeral and uneventful rule disqualify him from the Five Emperors in all sources. Other sources name  Yu the Great, the founder of the Xia dynasty, as the last of the Five. Pretenders are  italicized.
This is a family tree for the
Xia dynasty which ruled circa 2000–1750 BC. The historicity of the dynasty has sometimes been questioned, but circumstantial archaeological evidence supports its existence.
This is a family tree for the
Shang dynasty, which ruled China proper between circa 1750 BC and 1046 BC. The Shang rulers bore the title Di(帝）
This is a family tree for the Zhou dynasty, descendants of Duke Wu of Zhou who overthrew the last Shang ruler, thereby establishing the dynasty. Ruling from 1046 BC to 256 BC, it is notable as the longest dynasty in Chinese history, although the actual political and military control of China by the dynasty only lasted during the Western Zhou.
東野家族大宗世系翁 Family Tree of the descendants of the Duke of Zhou in Chinese
Spring and Autumn period
Warring States period
, a coälition of feudal lords and the BC Western Rong tribes overthrew King You and drove the Zhou out of the Wei valley. During the following Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, the major states pursued independent policies and eventually declared full independence claiming the title borne by Zhou rulers.
All claimed descent from the
Yellow Emperor through cadet lines of the royal houses above, although the historicity of such claims is usually doubted.
The kings of
Qin claimed descent from the Lady Xiu, "the granddaughter" of "a remote descendant" of the Emperor Zhuanxu, the grandson of the Yellow Emperor. Similarly, in the next generation, Lady Hua was said to be descended from Shaodian, the legendary figure who is sometimes the father and sometimes the foster father of the  Yellow and Flame Emperors. Although Nüfang ( lit. "Lady Fang") is counted as Elai's son, some scholars have claimed the figure was Elai's daughter and, along with the numerous important women in the early pedigree, indicates that early Qin was matriarchal.
surname Ying ( lit."Abundance") was said to have been bestowed by Shun upon Dafei (the husbandman Yi). If it was ever held by any of his descendants, it had fallen out of use by the time of Feizi, who was granted the name anew by King Xiao of the Zhou.
The Three Jins
(1)Shu Dai 叔帶
(4)Duke Ming 公明
(5)耿氏 Zhao Su 趙夙 Zhao Shuai (6) Viscount Cheng 趙成子 ?–622 BC
Gòng Mèng 共孟 Zhao Dun (7) Viscount Xuan of Zhao 趙宣子 ?–601 BC Zhao Tong 趙同 原氏 ?–583 BC (8)Zhao Kuo 趙括 屏氏 ?–583 BC Zhao Yingqi 趙嬰齊 楼氏
Zhao Chuan 趙穿 邯郸氏 赵旃叔父 Zhao Shuo Viscount Zhuang 赵庄子 of Zhao ?–597 BC
Zhào Zhān Xiōng 赵旃兄 Zhao Dan 趙旃 Zhao Wu (9) Viscount Wen of Zhao 趙文子 ?–541
Zhao Sheng 趙勝 Zhào Huò 赵获 Ying Cheng (10)Viscount Jing of Zhao 趙景子 ?–518 BC
Zhao Wu 趙午 ?–497 □ Zhao Yang (11)Viscount Jian
of Zhao 趙簡子 ?–476 BC
Zhào Jì 赵稷 □ Zhào Bólŭ 趙伯魯 趙毋卹 (12) Viscount Xiāng of Zhao 趙襄子 ?–425 BC
Zhào Cháo 赵朝 代成君 Zhào Zhōu 赵周 趙嘉 (13)Viscount Huan of Zhao 趙桓子 ?–424
趙浣 (14) Xian of Zhao 趙獻侯 Marquess of Zhao ?–409 BC
Zhào Jí (15) Lie of Zhao 趙烈侯 Marquess of Zhao ?– 409–400 BC (16) Duke Wu of Zhào 趙武公 ?– 400–387 BC
Zhào Zhāng (17) Jing of Zhao 趙敬侯 Marquess of Zhao c. 410– 387–375 BC Ducal Son Zhao 公子朝
Zhào Zhòng (18) Cheng 趙成侯 Marquess of Zhao ?– 375–350 BC
趙語 (19) Su of Zhao 趙肅侯 Marquess of Zhao ?– 350–326 BC Lord Anping 安平君
Zhao Yong (20) Wuling 趙武靈王 King of Zhao 340– 326––295 BC 298
安阳君 Ying Zhang 嬴章 Lord of Anying 安陽君 ?–295 Zhao He (21) Huiwen 趙惠文王 King of Zhao 310– 298–266 BC Zhao Bao Lord Yangwen 陽文君 Zhao Sheng 趙勝 Lord Pingyuan 平原君 ?–251 BC
Zhao Dan (22) Xiaocheng 趙孝成王 King of Zhao ?– 266–245 BC Prince Chang'an 長安君 Lord Luling 廬陵君
Zhao Yan (23) Daoxiang 趙悼襄王 King of Zhao ?– 245–236 BC
Zhao Jia (25) Prince Jia of Dai 代王嘉 250– 228––? BC 222 Zhao Qian (24) Youmiu 趙幽繆王 King of Zhao 245– 236––? BC 228
House of Jiang
Qi state - House of Jiang
(1) Jiang Ziya Duke Tai of Qi 齐太公
(2) Lü Ji 呂伋 齐丁公 Ding of Qi Duke of Qi c. 10th cent. BC
(3) Lü De 呂得 齐乙公 Yǐ of Qi Duke of Qi 10th cent. BC Jìzi 季子 崔氏
(4) Lü Cimu 呂慈母 齐癸公 Gui of Qi Duke of Qi 10th cent. BC
(5) Lü Buchen 呂不辰 齐哀公 Ai of Qi Duke of Qi ?– ?–878 BC (6) Lü Jing 呂靜 齐胡公 Hu of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 878–860 BC (7) Lü Shan 呂山 齐献公 Xian of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 860–851 BC
(8) Lü Shou 呂壽 齐武公 Wu of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 851–825 BC
(9) Lü Wuji 呂無忌 齐厉公 Li of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 825–816 BC
(10) Lü Chi 呂赤 齐文公 Wen of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 816–804 BC
(11) Lü Yue 呂說 Cheng of Qi 齐成公 Duke of Qi ?– 804–795 BC Gāo Shì 高氏 公子高
(12) Lü Gou 呂購 Zhuang I of Qi 齐庄公 Duke of Qi ?– 795–731 BC
Dé Chén 得臣 (13) Lü Lufu 呂祿甫 齐僖公 Xi of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 731–698 BC Yi Zhongnian 夷仲年 ?–699 Prince Liào 公子廖 Xí Shì 隰氏
(14) Lü Zhu'er 呂諸兒 齐襄公 Xiang of Qi Xiang of Qi ?– 698–686 BC Prince Jiu 公子纠 ?–685 (16) Lü Xiǎobái 呂小白 齐桓公 Huan of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 685–643 BC Wen Jiang 文姜 d. 673 BC Huan of Lu 魯桓公 Duke of Lu 711–694 BC (15) Lü Wuzhi 呂無知 729– 686–685 BC
(17) Lü Wúkuī 呂無虧 Duke of Qi BC ?– 643–642 BC (18) Lü Zhao 呂昭 齐孝公 Xiao of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 642–633 BC (19) Lü Pan 呂潘 齐昭公 Zhao of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 633–613 BC (21) Lü Shangren 呂商人 齐懿公 Yì of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 613–609 BC (22) Lü Yuan 呂元 齐惠公 Hui of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 609–599 BC Prince Yong 公子雍 Zhuang of Lu Duke of Lu 693–662 BC
(20) Lü She 呂舍 ?– 609 BC (23) Lü Wuye 呂無野 齐顷公 Qing of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 599–582 BC Luán Shì栾氏 Prince Jiān 公子坚 Gāo Shì 高氏 Prince Qí 公子祁
Prince Jiǎo 公子角 (24) Lü Huan 呂環 齐灵公 Ling of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 582–554 BC Zǐ Chéng Zi Gòng Zi Xiàshèng □
(25) Lü Guāng 呂光 Zhuang II of Qi 齐庄公 Duke of Qi ?– 554–548 BC Prince Ya 公子牙 (26) Lü Chujiu 呂杵臼 齐景公 Jing of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 548–490 BC Prince Qīng 公孙青 Prince Jié 公孙捷
Prince Jia 公子嘉 Yàn Jīzi 燕姬子 (28) Lü Yangsheng 齐悼公 Dao of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 489–485 BC (27) Lü Tu 呂荼 安孺子 An Ruzi Duke of Qi ?– 490–489 BC Prince Qian 公子黔 Prince Chu 公子鉏 Prince Ju 公子驹
(29)Lü Ren 呂壬 齐简公 Jian of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 485–481 BC (30) Lü Ao 呂驁 齐平公 Ping of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 481–456 BC
(31) Lü Ji 呂積 齐宣公 Xuan of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 456–405 BC
(32) Lü Dai 呂貸 齐康公 Kang of Qi Duke of Qi ?– 405–386–379 BC
House of Tian
Qi state – House of Tian
(1) Chen Wanm 陳完 Tian Jingzhong 田敬仲
(2) Tian Zhi 田穉 Tian Mengyi 田孟夷
(3) Tian Min 田湣 Tian Mengzhuang 田孟莊
(4) Tian Xuwu 田須無 Tian Wenzi 田文子
(5) Tian Wuyu 田無宇 Tian Huanzi 田桓子
(6) Tian Kai 田開 Tian Wuzi 田武子 ?–516 BC (7) Tian Qi 田乞 Tian Xizi 田僖子 Chén Zhāozi 陈昭子 孙书 孙氏 Zi Mén 子亹
陈瓘 (8) Tian Heng 田恆 Tian Chengzi 田成子 Zi Zhì 子士 Viscount Xuān 宣子 廪邱子 Sūn Píng 孙凭 Viscount Xiàn 子献
(9) Tian Pan 田盤 Tian Xiangzi 田襄子 Viscount Jiǎn 简子 Viscount Mù 穆子 Viscount Máng 芒子 Viscount Huì 惠子 Sūnwǔ 孙武 Zhū Yùyāng 诸御鞅
(10) Tian Bai 田白 Tian Zhuangzi 田莊子 ?–411 BC
(11)Tian Daozi 田悼子 410–405 BC (12) Tian He 田和 Tai of Tian Qi 齐太公 Duke of Tian Qi ?– 386–384 BC
(13) Tián Yǎn 田剡 Marquis of Tian ?– 383–375 BC (14) Tian Wu 田午 Huan of Tian Qi 田齊桓公 Duke of Tian Qi 400– 374–357 BC
Tian Xi 田喜 (15) Tian Yinqi 田因齊 齐威王 Wei of Qi King of Qi ?– 356–320 BC
(16) Tian Bijiang 田辟疆 齐宣王 Xuan of Qi King of Qi ?– 319–301 BC Jiāo Shī 郊师 Tian Ying 田嬰
(17) Tian Di 田地 齐湣王 Min of Qi King of Qi c. 323 – 300–284 BC Tian Wen 田文 Lord Mengchang 孟尝君
(18) Tian Fazhang 齐襄王 Xiang of Qi King of Qi ?– 283–265 BC
(19)Tian Jian 田建 齐王建 Jian of Qi King of Qi ?– 264–221 BC (20)Tian Jia 田假 King of Qi ?– 208– 205 BC
Tian An 田安
^ E.g., Lao Kan in his commentary on the
Records of the Grand Historian, although note Nienhauser's disagreement with that assessment.  
Sima Qian calls it a , 玄 鸟 where  玄 can mean "black" or "mysterious". Lao Kan identified the bird as a  swallow. 
^ Not Zhong
^ Recorded as "Duke Ning of Qin" (
秦寧公) in Sima Qian, but inscriptions on excavated bronzeware from the period has shown this to have been a mistranscription of the original "Xian". 
^ Yang, 99.
^ Mungello, David E.
The Great Encounter of China and the West, 1500–1800 Rowman & Littlefield; 3 edition (28 Mar 2009). ISBN 978-0-7425-5798-7. p. 97. 
Book of Han, which is originate from《帝系》。
Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian
^ Liu, L. & Xiu, H., "Rethinking Erlitou: legend, history and Chinese archaeology",
Antiquity, 81:314 (2007), pp. 886–901.
^ Mungello, David E.
The Great Encounter of China and the West, 1500–1800 Rowman & Littlefield; 3 edition (28 March 2009) ISBN 978-0-7425-5798-7 p.97.
^ Wang Quangen 王泉根, (1993).
Huaxia Quming Yishu 華夏取名藝術. (Taipei: Zhishu-fang Chuban Jituan 知書房出版集團), 42.
^ a b c d e f
Sima Qian. translated by Nienhauser, William Jr. Records of the Grand Historian The Grand Scribe's Records: The Basic Annals of Pre-Han China, pp. 87 ff. Indiana University Press, 1994. Accessed 4 December 2013.
^ Lao Kan.
Shih Chih Chin-chu, p. 106. (in Chinese)
Sima Qian. , Records of the Grand Historian ["The Qin Chronicles, Part Five"]. Guoxie, 2003. Accessed 7 Dec 2013. 《秦本纪第五》 (in Chinese)
^ Han Zhaoqi.
Annotated Shiji, "Annals of Qin", pp. 353–359. Zhonghua Book Company, 2010. ISBN 978-7-101-07272-3. (in Chinese)
^ Yap, Joseph.
Wars with the Xiongnu: A Translation from Zhizhi Tongjian, p. 51. AuthorHouse, 2009. Accessed 8 Dec 2013.