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Other than runs scored off the bat from a no-ball, a batsman is not given credit for extras and the extras are tallied separately on the scorecard and count only towards the team's score. A game with many extras is often considered as untidy bowling; conversely, a game having few extras is seen as tidy bowling.
An umpire may call a no-ball when the bowler or fielder commits an illegal action during bowling. A no-ball is entered in a batsman's scorecard as a ball faced.
The most common reason for a no-ball is overstepping the popping crease for the front foot at the instant of delivery. A rarer reason is when the bowler's back foot touches or lands outside the return crease. Another reason for calling a no-ball is when a bowler throws (or chucks) the ball. A very new[when?] rule was made by the ICC that if the bowler bowls the ball as a full toss above chest high or (in rarer cases) if the ball pitches too short it will/should be declared as "no-ball"
The penalty for a no-ball is one run (or, in some one-day competitions, two runs, and/or a "free hit"); furthermore, the no-ball does not count as one of the six in an over and an extra ball is bowled, but it does count as a ball faced by the batsman as far as his personal statistics are concerned.
The run awarded for the no-ball is not credited to an individual batsman's score but is tallied separately as part of the team's score. Any additional runs scored by the batsman off the bat, whether by running or by a boundary, are included in the individual's score.
It is possible for a team to score byes or leg byes (but not wides) from a delivery ruled a no-ball, these are in addition to the run awarded for the no-ball.
Since the 1980s a no-ball has been scored against the bowler, making the bowling statistics more accurate.
A ball being delivered too far from the batsman to strike it, provided that no part of the batsman's body or equipment touches the ball, is known as a wide.
When a wide is bowled the batting team are awarded a run, which is tallied separately on the scorecard and does not count towards the individual batsman's score. Additionally, a wide is not counted as one of the six balls in the over and a replacement is bowled. All wides are all added to the bowler's score.
If the ball is not struck by the batsman's bat (nor connects with any part of the batsman's body) the batsmen may still run if they choose. If the ball reaches the boundary, whether or not the batsmen ran, four byes are awarded. Any runs scored are tallied separately on the scorecard and do not count towards the batsman's individual score.
Byes may be scored from no-balls as well as from legitimate deliveries.
In modern cricket, byes are normally scored against the wicket-keeper in their statistics.
If the ball hits the batsman's body, then provided the batsman is not out leg before wicket (lbw) and the batsman either tried to avoid being hit or tried to hit the ball with the bat, the batsmen may run. In this case, regardless of the part of anatomy touched by the ball, the runs scored are known as leg-byes. If (with the same provisos) the ball reaches the boundary, whether or not the batsmen ran, then four leg-byes are awarded.
Leg-byes can be scored from no-balls or legitimate deliveries and are counted only towards the team's score, not that of the batsman.
Unlike no-balls and wides, byes and leg-byes are not scored against the bowler.
As well as the runs scored as penalties for no-balls and wides, since the changes to the laws in 2000, 25–30 penalty runs may be awarded for rarer breaches of the laws.
Five penalty runs are awarded to the batting team (sometimes the batsman). If:
Five penalty runs are awarded to the fielding side if the batting team:
The penalty runs are added to the fielding team's score in their previous innings, unless they have not yet batted, in which case the runs are added to their next innings.
Examples and references for each
Somewhat rare in cricket, some recent examples of penalty runs are: