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Exafroplacentalia

Exafroplacentalia
Temporal range: Paleocene - Holocene, 65–0 Ma
Talpa europaea MHNT.jpg
European mole (Boreoeutheria)
Myresluger2.jpg
Giant anteater (Xenarthra)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Placentalia
Clade: Exafroplacentalia
Waddell et al, 2001
Orders and Clades

Magnorder Boreoeutheria:

Exafroplacentalia or Notolegia is a clade of placental mammals proposed in 2001 on the basis of molecular research.[1][2]

Exafroplacentalia places Xenarthra as a sister group to the Boreoeutheria (comprising Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires),[3] thus making Afrotheria a primitive group of placental mammals (the group name roughly means "those which are not African placentals").

Classification

Eutheria  


Afrotheria


  Exafroplacentalia  


Xenarthra


  Boreoeutheria  

   

Laurasiatheria


   

Euarchontoglires





Alternative hypotheses

One alternative hypothesis is the Epitheria hypothesis:

Placentalia


Xenarthra


Epitheria


Afrotheria


Boreoeutheria


Euarchontoglires



Laurasiatheria





Another alternative hypothesis is the Atlantogenata hypothesis:

Eutheria

Atlantogenata


Xenarthra



Afrotheria



Boreoeutheria


Euarchontoglires



Laurasiatheria




Updated analysis of transposable element insertions around the time of divergence strongly supports the fourth hypothesis of a near-concomitant origin of the three superorders of mammals:[4]

Eutheria


Xenarthra



Afrotheria


Boreoeutheria


Euarchontoglires



Laurasiatheria




See also

References

  1. ^ Murphy, W.J., Pringle, T.H., Crider, T.A., Springer, M.S. & Miller, W. 2007. Using genomic data to unravel the root of the placental mammal phylogeny. Genome Research 17, pp.413-421.
  2. ^ Kriegs, J.O., Churakov, G., Kiefmann, M., Jordan, U., Brosius, J. & Schmitz, J. 2006. Retroposed elements as archives for the evolutionary history of placental mammals. Plos Biol 4, pp.e91.
  3. ^ Goloboff, Pablo A.; Catalano, Santiago A.; Mirande, J. Marcos; Szumik, Claudia A.; Arias, J. Salvador; Källersjö, Mari; Farris, James S. (2009). "Phylogenetic analysis of 73 060 taxa corroborates major eukaryotic groups". Cladistics. 25 (3): 211–230. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2009.00255.x. 
  4. ^ Nishihara, H., Maruyama, S. & Okada, N. 2009. Retroposon analysis and recent geological data suggest near-simultaneous divergence of the three superorders of placental mammals. PNAS 106: 5235-40.

Further reading