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Evangelos Florakis Naval Base explosion

Evangelos Florakis Naval Base explosion
Vasilikos explosion crater1.jpg
The crater produced by the explosion, photographed in 2013
Native name Έκρηξη στη ναυτική βάση «Ευάγγελος Φλωράκης»
Date 11 July 2011 (2011-07-11)
Time 05:50 EEST
Location Zygi, Cyprus
Coordinates 34°43′41″N 33°17′08″E / 34.7281°N 33.2855°E / 34.7281; 33.2855
Type Accidental explosion
Deaths 13
Non-fatal injuries 62

On 11 July 2011, a large amount of ammunition and military explosives that had been stored outdoors for over two years at the Evangelos Florakis Naval Base near Zygi, Cyprus, self-detonated, killing 13 people, including the Commander of the Navy, Andreas Ioannides, the base commander and six firefighters. A further 62 people were injured.[1][2]

The ammunitions had been seized in 2009 from a cargo ship bound for Syria, and were awaiting disposal. The explosion severely damaged hundreds of buildings in Zygi and the nearby Vasilikos power station, Cyprus' largest one, causing widespread disruption in the supply of power to the island.

As a result of the incident, demonstrations were held in the capital Nicosia by angered citizens, leading to the resignation of the Cypriot Defence Minister and the Commander-in-Chief of the Cypriot National Guard.

The explosion was the worst peacetime military accident ever recorded in Cyprus, and is ranked as the fifth largest non-nuclear human-induced explosion in history, with a yield of approximately 2 to 3.2 kilotons.[3]

Background

Evangelos Florakis Naval Base explosion is located in Cyprus
Evangelos Florakis Naval Base
Evangelos Florakis Naval Base
Nicosia
Nicosia
Location of the incident within Cyprus

The Evangelos Florakis Navy Base is a Cyprus Navy base, situated near Zygi, between Limassol and Larnaca.[4]

In open storage on the base were 98 containers of 120 mm, 122 mm, 125 mm, and 160 mm high explosive artillery shells, 7.62 mm shell casings, compressed gunpowder, silver dollar-sized slugs[quantify], primers, and magnesium primers that had been seized by the United States Navy in 2009 after it intercepted a Cypriot-flagged, Russian-owned vessel, Monchegorsk, travelling from Iran to Syria in the Red Sea.[5][6][7][8] According to leaked US cables through WikiLeaks, released in 2011, the US through Hillary Clinton exerted pressure on Cyprus to confiscate the shipment.[9] The ship was escorted to a Cypriot port and the Cyprus Navy was given responsibility for the explosives, which it moved to the Evangelos Florakis a month later.[10] At the time of the incident in 2011, the explosives had apparently been left in the open for over two years. The Cypriot government had declined offers from Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States to remove or dispose of the material, fearing an adverse reaction from Syria.[6] The government had instead requested that the UN effect the removal, but claimed that its request had been rejected.[11]

Explosion

The explosion occurred at 05:50 EEST (02:50 UTC) following a fire caused by explosions of several containers starting one hour and 20 minutes earlier. Extensive damage was caused in a wide area surrounding the blast. The Vasilikos Power Station, the largest power facility on Cyprus, which provided approximately half the island's electricity, was severely damaged, causing widespread power cuts which affected much of Nicosia, the Cypriot capital, over 40 miles (65 km) from the Evangelos Florakis base.[12]

The blast killed 12 people on the spot and injured a further 62, of whom two were injured seriously with one dying later increasing the number of dead to 13. Among those killed were Captain Andreas Ioannides, the Commander of the Navy (the head of the Cyprus Navy) and Commander Lambros Lambrou, 45, the commander of the Evangelos Florakis base.[13] Also killed were four other Cyprus Navy personnel and six civilian firefighters who had been tackling the small blaze that led to the explosion.[6]

Aftermath

The Vasilikos power station two days after the explosion

The €700 million-power station was reduced to a "mangled shell", and the electricity supply to approximately half of Cyprus was interrupted. The Electricity Authority of Cyprus (EAC) later instituted rolling blackouts in order to conserve the supply and stated that it would import generators from Greece and Israel while the damage, estimated at €2 billion, was being repaired.[10] The rolling blackouts lasted for two to three hours in each area and were planned to affect only residential areas.

The station's installed capacity was 47% of EAC's total and would have soon increased to 55% with the delivery of Unit 5.[14] A private deal was signed on 16 July for the supply of up to 80MW from Northern Cyprus until the end of August.[15][16]

Funerals were held for the majority of the dead, including Ioannides, on 13 July.[17]

Concerns were raised that some of the substances in the containers may have been toxic, but the Cypriot Health Minister announced on 20 July that no public health risk had been detected, although residents would be kept under observation as a "precautionary measure".[18]

Political repercussions

The Cypriot Defence Minister, Costas Papacostas, and the National Guard Commander-in-Chief, General Petros Tsalikidis, both resigned from their offices as a result of the incident.[7][11] The government announced that an independent inquiry into the incident would be held[10] and Cyprus Police announced that it would launch a criminal investigation.[19] The explosion destroyed several houses and over 250 others suffered lesser damage, displacing approximately 150 people.[6][10]

Several thousand people upset by the Cypriot government's failure to dispose of the explosives held a demonstration in the capital Nicosia on 12 July. A group of about fifty broke away from the demonstration and stormed the grounds of the Presidential Palace, demanding the resignation of Dimitris Christofias, President of Cyprus.[20] The breakaway group was almost immediately apprehended by the Cyprus Police, who nonetheless used tear gas ten minutes after the incident had begun in an attempt to disperse the crowds.[11] The protests continued into 13 July and 20 people were arrested during the disorder.[17]

On 19 July, Markos Kyprianou, the Cypriot Foreign Minister, resigned, becoming the second cabinet minister to resign over[21] the explosion.

On 3 October, Polys Polyviou, the independent state-appointed investigator charged to look into potential responsibility by state and other officials leading to the 11 July blast,[22] released a 643-page document detailing his findings of the investigation, concluding that Cypriot president Dimitris Christofias is mainly to blame for the events that led to the explosion. According to the investigation, the president has institutional and very serious personal responsibility for the disaster.[23][24] The investigator said that the attorney-general should look into the possibility of serious crimes—including manslaughter—being committed by all involved, without exception. The president Dimitris Christofias rejected the results of the investigation, denying any personal responsibility and accusing Mr. Polyviou of exceeding his mandate.[25][26]

Economic repercussions

Of Cyprus' US$24.66bn economy, the EU estimates that the cost of the explosion to the island could amount to US$2.83bn, with cost of the power plant itself coming to US$992m. This was weeks before the Bank of Cyprus and other business leaders said "deep spending cuts are needed fast."[27]

References

  1. ^ "Cyprus FM formally resigns over deadly blast". Associated Press. The Kansas City Star. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  2. ^ "French, Greek experts join Cyprus blast probe". Associated Press. San Diego Union-Tribune. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  3. ^ "Cyprus protest over deadly blast at navy base". BBC News. BBC. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  4. ^ Dewhurst, Patrick (11 July 2011). "Breaking News: huge explosion at Evangelos Florakis naval base". Cyprus Mail. Cyprus Mail Co. Ltd. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  5. ^ "Saga of the Monchegorsk". Arms Control Wonk. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2011. 
  6. ^ a b c d Evripidou, Stefanos (12 July 2011). "'Criminal errors' in navy base blast". Cyprus Mail. Cyprus Mail Co. Ltd. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  7. ^ a b "Cyprus: Navy chief killed by base munitions blast". BBC News. BBC. 11 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  8. ^ "Negligence charged in Cyprus explosion". UPI. Nicosia, Cyprus. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  9. ^ Hazou, Elias (3 July 2011). "A diplomatic vice with no room to wriggle". Cyprus Mail. Cyprus Mail Co. Ltd. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  10. ^ a b c d Hajipapas, Andreas; Hope, Kerin (12 July 2011). "Protests follow Cyprus navy fire deaths". Financial Times. The Financial Times Limited. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c Spencer, Richard (12 July 2011). "Anger grows in Cyprus over 'criminal errors' behind explosion". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  12. ^ Psyllides, George (11 July 2011). "Evangelos Florakis blast kills 12". Cyprus Mail. Cyprus Mail Co. Ltd. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  13. ^ "The victims of the naval base tragedy". Cyprus Mail. Cyprus Mail Co. Ltd. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  14. ^ Kambas, Michele (12 July 2011). "Cyprus says attempted to offload Iran blast cargo". Reuters. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  15. ^ "Power boost from north Cyprus". Cyprus Mail. 17 July 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011. [permanent dead link]
  16. ^ "'Devletsiz' uzlaşı". Kıbrıs (in Turkish). 17 July 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  17. ^ a b Morley, Nathan (13 July 2011). "Anger Grows in Cyprus Over Munitions Blast". Voice of America. United States Government. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  18. ^ "Reassurances on Mari health concerns". Cyprus Mail. Cyprus Mail Co. Ltd. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  19. ^ "Cyprus protest over deadly blast at navy base". BBC News. BBC. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  20. ^ "Cypriots Riot After Deadly Munitions Blast". Voice of America. United States Government. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  21. ^ Hadjicostis, Menelaos (20 July 2011). "Cyprus FM formally resigns over deadly blast". Forbes. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  22. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 September 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2013. 
  23. ^ Kambas, Michele (3 October 2011). "Independent probe blames Cyprus leader for blast". Reuters. 
  24. ^ [news.yahoo.com]
  25. ^ "Cyprus President Christofias rejects blame for blast". BBC News. 3 October 2011. 
  26. ^ "Cyprus president denies blame for munitions blast". Reuters. 3 October 2011. 
  27. ^ [english.aljazeera.net]

External links