Starting from the Stone Age, Ernakulam has been the site of human settlement. Monolithic monuments like Dolmens and rock-cut caves can be seen in many parts of Ernakulam.
The region can claim to have played a significant part in fostering the trade relations between Kerala and the outside world in the ancient and medieval period. The early political history of Ernakulam is interlinked with that of the Chera Dynasty of the Sangam age, who ruled over vast portions of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. After the Cheras, the place was later ruled by the Kingdom of Cochin (Perumpadapu Swaroopam).
Under the Köppen climate classification, the City of Ernakulam features a Tropical monsoon climate. Since the region lies in the south western coastal state of Kerala, the climate is tropical, with only minor differences in temperatures between day and night, as well as over the year. Summer lasts from March to May, and is followed by the South-west monsoon from June to September. October and November form the post monsoon or retreating monsoon season. Winter from December through February is slightly cooler, and windy, due to winds from the Western Ghats.
The City is drenched in the monsoonal season by heavy showers. The average annual rainfall is 3000 mm. The South-west monsoon generally sets in during the last week of May. After July the rainfall decreases. On an average, there are 124 rainy days in a year. The maximum average temperature of the City in the summer season is 33 degree Celsius while the minimum temperature recorded is 22.5 degrees Celsius. The winter season records a maximum average of 29 degree Celsius and a minimum average of 20 degree Celsius..
Ernakulam is a major financial and commercial hub of Kerala. The Cochin Port, DP World Kochi and Cochin Shipyard have resulted in the faster growth of the city. The technology park InfoPark, Kochi and SmartCity, Kochi is on the outskirts of the city. Tourism has also contributed heavily to the economy of Ernakulam. The city with its temples, old churches and its culture, is ranked first in the number of domestic tourists visiting. Vypin or Vypeen is one of a group of islands that form part of the city of Kochi, in the southwestern Indian state of Kerala. Vypin is one of the densely populated islands in Asia. The western coast of Vypin has the longest beaches in Kochi namely, the Cherai Beach, Kuzhuppilly Beach and the Puthuvype Beach.
The Vytilla Mobility hub caters to the transportation needs of the city. Ernakulam is well served by private/government buses, autorickshaws, long and short distance trains and ferries. Ernakulam has a number of jetties where passengers can embark and disembark from ferries. Traveling via ferries is cheaper and faster than traveling by buses and/or autos. The main jetty is called the Ernakulam jetty from where one can board a ferry to Fort Kochi, Mattancherry and Willingdon Island.
Ernakulam Junction Railway Station is the one of the busiest railway station in Kerala. The Ernakulam railway station is located close to the town's main shopping area situated on MG Road. The Southern Railway Zone of the Indian Railways operates the main rail transport system in Ernakulam. There are two railway stations in Ernakulam City. Ernakulam Town railway station is situated in the northern part of the city and is the stopping point for trains going towards mainly to the Kottayam side in the south. The Ernakulam Junction Railway Station is a junction and departing station of passengers and express trains, and is the stopping point for trains going towards the south side Alappuzha. The Station also has a Train Care Centre in its premises. 21 trains originate from Ernakulam Junction. There is also a small railway station at Edappally.
Kochi Metro is a metro system for the city of Kochi in Kerala, India. The first phase is being set up at an estimated cost of ₹51.81 billion (US$720 million), and was expected to be completed by June 2017, revising the previous deadline of 1 November 2016.
Currently 18.2 km of phase 1 from aluva to maharajas is open to public while remaining 7 km from maharajas to pettah and extension to thripunithura is under construction phase.
Also phase 2 line from kaloor station to infopark via kakkanad has been sanctioned and government is in negotiations with people on that stretch for land acquisition.
And phase 3 extension proposal from aluva to angamaly via nedumbassery airport has been forwarded to central government for sanction.
Ernakulam also has ferry services connecting Ernakulam with Willingdon Island, Mattancherry, Fort Kochi and Mulavukadu, at intervals of 20 minutes.
Recently KMRL(Kochi Metro Rail Limited) initiated plan to introduce Water Metro to Integrated transport plan of greater cochin area.
Kochi water metro is one of a kind initiative in India which plans to introduce modern airconditioned ferries on the canals of Kochi for reducing congestion on the highways and also for providing easier access to islands scattered around Kochi.