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Temporal range: EoceneOligocene
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorrhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Eosimiidae
Beard et al., 1994

Eosimiidae is the family of extinct primates believed to be the earliest simians.


When they were discovered the possibility that Eosimians were outside and ancestral to Simians was considered (Culotta 1992), but subsequent work showed them to be Simians (Kay et al 1997, Ross et al 1998).[2] Some scholars continue to question whether the eosimiids are simians, as they seem closer to Tarsiiformes - Gunnell and Miller (2001), for instance, found that eosimiid morphology didn't match up to anthropoid (simian) morphology.[3] However, most experts now place Eosimians as stem simians - Williams, Kay and Kirk (2010) note this is because more and more evidence points in that direction.[4]

Williams, Kay and Kirk note that (as at late 2009), accounting for all proposed species, there would be 11 species in total in 6 genera (Amphipithecidae, Anthrasimias, Bahinia, Eosimias, Phenacopithecus, Phileosimias).[4] There appears to be a wealthy diversity of eosimiids in China.

With several genera, such as Phileosimias, and Anthrasimias, their classification as eosimiids appears to be unclear. Marivaux et al. (2005) suggest three definite groups of Eosimiidae: Bahinia, Phanacopithecus and Eosimias. They announced their discovery of fossils of two new species, Phileosimias kamali and Phileosimias brahuiorum. They concluded that Phileosimias are also early simians, and that the more modern simians may have emerged as their sister.[5] Williams, Kay and Kirk (2010) note that both Gunnell et al (2008) and Kay et al (2009) argue that Anthrasimias should be classified as Adapiforms, and that Rosenberger and Hogg express doubts about Bahinia Pondaungensis. They also note that whilst most analyses link Amphipithecidae to Anthropoids (i.e. simians), there is a lack of certainty as they show resemblances to adapiforms and omomyiforms as well as to catarrhine simians.[4]

See also


  1. ^ Haaramo, Mikko (2002-12-29). "Mikko's Phylogeny Archive". Retrieved 2007-07-05. 
  2. ^ Ross, Callum; Kay, Richard F, eds. (2004). Anthropoid Origins: New Visions. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 712. ISBN 978-1461347002. 
  3. ^ Primate Adaptation and Evolution: 3rd Edition, Ch. 13, p 279-281
  4. ^ a b c Williams, Blythe A; Kay, Richard F; Kirk, E Christopher (January 2010). Walker, Alan, ed. "New perspectives on anthropoid origins". PNAS. 107 (11): 4797–4804. doi:10.1073/pnas.0908320107. PMC 2841917Freely accessible. 
  5. ^ Marivaux; et al. (June 2005). "Anthropoid primates from the Oligocene of Pakistan (Bugti Hills): Data on early anthropoid evolution and biogeography". PNAS. 102 (24): 8436–41. doi:10.1073/pnas.0503469102. PMC 1150860Freely accessible. PMID 15937103.  (Full text PDF)

External links