Eni S.p.A. (Italian pronunciation: [ˈɛːni]) is an Italian multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Rome. Considered one of the global supermajors, it has operations in 79 countries, and is currently world's 11th largest industrial company with a market capitalization of 68 billion euros (US$ 90 billion), as of August 14, 2013. The Italian government owns a 30.303% golden share in the company, 3.934% held through the state Treasury and 26.369% held through the Cassa Depositi e Prestiti. Another 2.012% of the shares are held by the People's Bank of China. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.
The name "ENI" was initially the acronym of "Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi" (National Hydrocarbons Authority). Through the years after its foundation however, it operated in a large number of fields including contracting, nuclear power, energy, mining, chemicals and plastics, refining/extraction and distribution machinery, hospitality industry and even textile industry and news.
Eni constantly ranks among the top 100 on Fortune Global 500 list for largest companies by revenue. In 2016, the company holds the 65th place, a fall of 40 places from the previous year's 25th rank.
In terms of share capitalisation (the market value of shares), Eni is ranked sixth in comparison with the principal companies operating in the same sector: Exxon, Shell, Chevron, Total, BP, ConocoPhillips, Statoil, Anadarko, Apache and Marathon Oil.
In July 2017, the oil giant accepted responsibility for an oil spill affecting the Fylde coast of Blackpool in the United Kingdom.
Eni was founded and established by law in 1953 from an existing company, Agip, which was created in 1926 with the aim to explore for oilfields, acquire and commercialize oil and derivatives. In March 1953, Enrico Mattei was nominated Eni's Chairman.
Eni originally was an acronym for the company's full title Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi. After 1995, the meaning ceased to be relevant but the name was maintained.
In 1952 Eni chose its own logo, the six-legged dog, an imaginary animal symbolizing the sum of a car's four wheels and the two legs of its driver.
Starting in 1954, Eni acquired extensive exploration rights in North Africa, signing an agreement with the Egyptian government led by Nasser while providing an active and equal role for the crude producing countries through the establishment of joint ventures.
In 1957 Eni pushed for a similar agreement, known as the "Mattei formula", to be signed with Persian Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the National Iranian Company.
In 1960, during the Cold War period, Eni signed an agreement with the Soviet Union for the importation of Russian crude at very reasonable prices.
On 27 October 1962, Enrico Mattei's airiplane misteriously exploded near Bascapè, on his way to Milan from Catania. His death was initially considered an accident, but later it was confirmed to be a murder with the aim to protect and hide important economical and political interests in Italy and especially abroad, as it is clearly stated in the records of the trial on the assassination of the journalist Mauro De Mauro, who was investigating on the death of Enrico Mattei.
During the following years, Eni signed joint venture contracts with foreign companies to supply crude from Egypt to Iran and from Libya to Tunisia.
In 1963, Eni acquired a majority stake in Italgas.
In October 1973 after the Yom Kippur War and the OPEC embargo against the United States and the Netherlands by OPEC members and Arab countries, a serious his oil crisis occurred, causing Eni to consolidate its position in the international market by signing an agreement with Sonatrach, the Algerian state oil entity for natural gas supply.
In 1974 Eni signed an agreement with the Libyan government, followed by additional agreements with Egypt, Nigeria and Tunisia.
During the mid-1970s, Eni planned a major infrastructure for transporting natural gas over long distances, by building a pipeline network of thousands of miles throughout Europe and the Mediterranean.
After the inauguration of the Trans-Mediterranean Pipeline connecting Algeria to Sicily through Tunisia, Eni signs a new agreement with Libya for the exploitation of Boùri, the biggest oilfield in the centre of the Mediterranean, and develops its international role within the oil industry.
In 1992 Eni became a joint stock company by Law Decree, and was listed to the Italian and New York Stock Exchange in 1995.
From 1995 to 1998 Eni put four share offers fully successfully, as 70% of its capital assets were sold to private shareholders.
As the price of oil collapsed in 1998 as other major companies Eni got to turn into a race through merges, international acquisitions, new explorations and the foundation of real super-companies.
Since 2000, Eni has been developing the Kashagan oilfield a major offshore discovery, along the Caspian Sea.
In 2005 the Blue Stream pipeline projected to supply gas from southern Russia to Turkey was inaugurated as a joint venture between Eni and Gazprom.
In 2007 Eni signed an agreement to conduct South Stream a feasibility study with Gazprom to import Russian gas into Europe across the Black Sea.
Activist asset manager Knight Vinke, who owns 1% of the outstanding shares of the company, begun pressuring Eni's management to operate a spin-off of Eni's gas activities. In its opinion this would solve the undervaluation of the company and release up to 50 billion euros ($70bn) of hidden value.
In 2010 Eni achieves key production milestone in Iraqi Zubair oil field.
After getting a licence in 2006 for the exploration of an offshore area in the north of Mozambique, known as Area 4, Eni announced several major natural gas discoveries between 2011 and 2012 such as Mamba South, Mamba North, Mamba North East, Coral 1.
2010 to present
In February 2014, ENI discovered oil at its DRC offshore block.
Since 2012 Eni has been selling off refining and marketing assets it owned in eastern Europe in order to increase profitability. By 2013 Eni already reduced its refining capacity by 13 percent. In May 2014 Eni agreed to sell their 32.5% share in Česká rafinerská a.s. (CRC), a refining company in Czech Republic, to MOL Group of Hungary.
In June 2014 the company signed an agreement with Sasol to acquire a 40% interest in a permit to explore 82,000-km2 offshore of South Africa's east coast.
In January 2015, Eni in collaboration with Vitol Energy signed a $7 billion contract with the government of Ghana. This agreement was reached in order to produce oil and gas at Cape Three Points in the Western Region of Ghana, in an attempt to enable Ghana meet its power and energy needs.
In August 2015 Eni announced the discovery of a huge gasfield off the coast of Egypt.
In March 2018, Eni reached an agreement with MIT to fund fusion research projects run out of the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC)’s newly created Laboratory for Innovation in Fusion Technologies (LIFT). The expected investment in these research projects will amount to about $2 million over the following years.
Exploration and production
As exploration and reserve replacement being major drivers for the company, Eni boosts for production additions in its core oil field areas (North and Sub-Saharan Africa, Venezuela, Barents Sea, Yamal Peninsula, Kazakhstan, Iraq and the Far East). Eni has about 130 exploration and production subsidiaries, such as Eni Norge.
In 2012 Eni reported liquids and gas production for the full year of 1,701 kboe/d, this being calculated assuming a natural gas conversion factor to barrel equivalent, updated to 5,492 cubic feet of gas equal 1 barrel of oil from July 1, 2012.
During 2012 60 new exploratory wells were drilled, as 56 were drilled in 2011 and 47 in 2010. The overall commercial success rate was 40% (40.8% net to Eni) as compared to 42% in 2011 (38.6% net to Eni) and 41% in 2010 (39% net to Eni). In 2012 351 development wells were drilled as well, as 407 in 2011 and 399 in 2010.
Gas and Power
In 2012, sales of natural gas were 95.32 bcm, down 1.44 bcm compared to 2011.
Eni's power generation sites are located in Ferrera Erbognone, Ravenna, Livorno, Taranto, Mantova, Brindisi, Ferrara and Bolgiano. In 2012, Eni's power generation was 25.67 TWh.
Overall Eni supplies 2,600 customers including large companies, power generation companies, wholesalers and distributors of natural gas for automotive use. Residential users are 7.45 million and include households, professionals, small and medium size enterprises, and public bodies located all over Italy and 2.09 million customers in European Countries. International sales include Iberian Peninsula, Germany, Austria, Benelux, Hungary, UK/Northern Europe, Turkey, France markets.
Eni's electricity generation sites in Italy, as of January 2010, are the following:
- Natural gas power plants
- Photovoltaic power plants
Refining and Marketing
Eni is the leader operator in refining and marketing of petroleum products in Italy.
Eni is engaged in retail and wholesales activities in Central-Eastern European countries also (Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Hungary).
Retail sales operations are conducted under the Eni and Agip brands. The re-branding of Eni's service stations in Italy and in the rest of Europe to Eni brand is underway.
Engineering and Construction
Eni operates in engineering, construction and drilling both offshore and onshore for the oil&gas industry through the subsidiary Saipem.
In April 2012, Eni in collaboration with ZEiTECS announced the world's first offshore rigless/wireline retrievable ESP system for Eni Congo.
Eni's principal subsidiaries include:
- Eni Gas & Power (100% owned) – a natural gas and power company based in Belgium formed by merger of Distrigas and Nuon Belgium
- Versalis (100% owned) – Versalis is a chemical company that manages the production and marketing of petrochemical products such as olefines, aromatics and intermediates (base chemicals), styrenes, elastomers and polyethylene, plus in recent years a focus on green chemistry, being also able to count on a range of proprietary technologies, advanced plant facilities and a broad-based distribution network.
- Saipem (30,54% owned) – Saipem is an oil and gas industry contractor. Saipem has contracted for engineering, oilfield services and construction both offshore and onshore through several pipelines, including Blue Stream, Greenstream, Nord Stream and South Stream. It is a subsidiary listed on the Italian Stock Exchange.
- Eni UK – carries out operations in the British section of the North Sea, in the Irish Sea and off the coast of the Shetland Islands. Has been present in UK since 1964. In 2006 Eni UK's average net production of hydrocarbons was more than 141,000 boe/d.
- Eni India – is expected to start drilling at a deepwater block 2, near Andaman and Nicobar Islands in Q2 of 2011 as it has received 2-year extension for the completion of drilling program. The program was delayed due to various environmental issues and scarcity of oil rigs. ENI India had won this block in 2005 and partners with ONGC and GAIL India.
The Central Energy Italian Gas Holding scandal in 2005 involved Eni and Gazprom.
In 2009, the European Commission filed formal antitrust charges against Eni. The commission believes that Eni has conspired to keep competitors from using its gas pipelines.
In 2009 again, according to the WikiLeaks cables, US ambassador Lanier told Washington that bribery allegations were made in Uganda by Eni which at the time was in competition for oil assets in the country against Tullow Oil. The bribes were taken by the newly appointed Ugandan prime minister, Amama Mbabazi. 
After corruption charges against the subsidiary Saipem, Eni's CFO Alessandro Bernini had to resign and the new CFO Massimo Mondazzi took over in December 2012.
Eni has been included into the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index since 2007.
In 2012 Eni is confirmed on the FTSE4Good Index for the sixth consecutive year.
In 2012 Eni is also included in the Carbon Performance Leadership Index and is the only FTSE MIB company to gain the triple E for Standard Ethics.
During 2012, Eni decreased CO2 emission that resulted from flaring by 10% as compared to 2011.
In 2013 Eni has been confirmed in the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices and, in the half-yearly review in March 2014, also in the FTSE4 good sustainability index.
In 2013 Eni continued its commitment to integrated reporting, preparing the Annual Report 2013 in accordance with the principles and contents of the integrated reporting (IR) framework issued by the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC).
Among the UN Sustainable Development Solution Network (SDSN), in 2013 Eni led the Energy For All in Sub-Saharan Africa initiative through international collaborations aimed at devising solutions to fight against energy poverty, in particular in Sub-Saharan Africa.
In 2013 Eni's commitment continued in ensuring access of local communities to energy, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa.
In the first half of 2014 Eni achieved the start-up of the Porto Torres green chemistry plant and the Venice biorefinery.
Board of Directors
The Board of Directors is comprised as follows as of February 2017:
Emma Marcegaglia, former president of General Confederation of Italian Industry (Chairwoman of the Board)
Claudio Descalzi, current CEO of Eni
Andrea Gemma, law professor at Roma Tre University
Pietro Guindani, former CEO and CFO of Vodafone Italy
Karina Litvack, former Director of Ethics and Corporate Governance for F&C Asset Management
Alessandro Lorenzi, former Vice President of Planning and Control at Ferrero SpA, former CFO of Coin Group, former CCO for Lavazza
Diva Moriani, current CEO of KME Vorstand
Fabrizio Pagani, current Secretary of Technology for Ministry of Economy and Finance (Italy), former OECD senior advisor and head of G8/G20 office
Alessandro Profumo, former CEO of Unicredit
- ^ [www.eni.com]
- ^ [www.eni.com]
- ^ "Summary for Eni SpA". Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- ^ "Commissione Nazionale per le Società e la Borsa". consob.it. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14.
- ^ Frankfurt Stock Exchange Archived November 19, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "Fortune Global 500 Eni 65".
- ^ "Market Cap Eni and Peers". eni.com.
- ^ "Blackpool Gazette". Blackpool Gazette.
- ^ La costruzione dell'architettura: temi e opere del dopoguerra italiano. Gangemi Editore. 2016. pp. 190–. ISBN 978-88-492-9096-7.
- ^ "ENI SPA (ENI:BrsaItaliana): Stock Quote & Company Profile - Businessweek". Businessweek.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-15.
- ^ ENI SPA NYSE Archived 2012-05-30 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "Introducing Enrico Mattei - enihistory". eni.com.
- ^ "FEEM - Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei - About us - Enrico Mattei". feem.it. Archived from the original on 2011-08-16.
- ^ a b "Eni". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- ^ "What does Eni stand for?". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-12-02.
- ^ History of the trademark Archived 2013-06-19 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "What is the significance of the "six-legged dog" in the Eni symbol?". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2015-10-06.
- ^ "1954 - MOVING AROUND THE WORLD. ALL YOU NEED IS A FORMULA". eni.com.
- ^ Society of Petroleum Engineers
- ^ "Enrico Mattei". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- ^ "1957 - THE MATTEI FORMULA, ANOTHER WINNING MOVE". enihistory.
- ^ Eni in Egypt Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "OIL AGREEMENTS IN IRAN". iranicaonline.org.
- ^ "ENI". wordpress.com.
- ^ "CEO Paolo Scaroni discusses Eni-Russia relations: past, present and future". thinkRUSSIA.
- ^ "A History of US Petroleum Wars by We Fight for Oil". epubbud.com.
- ^ "1962 - A LIGHT GOES OFF OVER THE SKY OF Bascapè. - enihistory". eni.com.
- ^ "The Mystery of Enrico Mattei". HistoricWings.com: A Magazine for Aviators, Pilots and Adventurers.
- ^ "La sentenza su De Mauro "Ucciso per lo scoop su Mattei" - Palermo - Repubblica.it". Palermo - La Repubblica. Retrieved 2018-01-08.
- ^ "Oil Company Histories". virginia.edu.
- ^ Italgas history
- ^ "Oil Embargo, 1973–1974 - 1969–1976 - Milestones - Office of the Historian". state.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-11-01.
- ^ "OPEC states declare oil embargo". HISTORY.com.
- ^ "1973-74 Oil Crisis". berkeley.edu.
- ^ "Research Library". bakerinstitute.org. Archived from the original on 2013-05-04.
- ^ "The 70s/80s". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2011-08-17.
- ^ National Oil Corporation-Eni gas company
- ^ The Race for Energy: from 1972 to 1998 Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "Pipelines or pipe dreams? Lessons from the history of Arab transit pipelines". macam.ac.il.
- ^ Eni in Libya Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ [email protected] "NATO PA - 166 GSM 03 - ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE MEDITERRANEAN". nato-pa.int. Archived from the original on 2005-11-09.
- ^ "Trans-Mediterranean Pipeline". Pipelines International.
- ^ Pipelines in the Middle East and North Africa Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "Trans-Mediterranean Natural Gas Pipeline - Hydrocarbons Technology". hydrocarbons-technology.com.
- ^ "ENI (Agip) Bouri". FMC Technologies.
- ^ "Libya gas export project sets records". offshore-mag.com.
- ^ "1978 - HOUSTON, WE HAVE A CONTRACT. - enihistory". eni.com.
- ^ "Share Capital Evolution". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-12-02.
- ^ "E stock quote - ENI S.p.A. stock price - NASDAQ.com". NASDAQ.com.
- ^ "1992 – A private affair, at the sevice [sic] of everyone. - enihistory". eni.com.
- ^ "Eni signs agreements on industrial relations and green economy". europa.eu.
- ^ "Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (ENI) S.P.A." ide.go.jp.
- ^ Eni SpA Archived 2013-12-02 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "1995 – The stock exchange listing! - enihistory". eni.com.
- ^ "Who will run Eni?". The Economist.
- ^ "The History of Privatization". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2012-03-14.
- ^ "Login to access the Oil & Gas Journal Subscriber Premium features". ogj.com.
- ^ "eni s.p.a." aebrus.ru.
- ^ The Top 10 Oil & Gas Companies
- ^ The Race for Energy: from 1998 to 2009 Archived 2013-12-04 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ Mergers and restructuring in the world oil industry Archived 2016-05-22 at the Portuguese Web Archive
- ^ "ABOUT KASHAGAN". ncoc.kz.
- ^ "2001 – Conquering Kashagan. - enihistory". eni.com.
- ^ "Kashagan Offshore Oil Field Project - Offshore Technology". offshore-technology.com.
- ^ "Blue Stream". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2012-09-28.
- ^ "Hydrocarbons Industry Projects - Hydrocarbons Technology". hydrocarbons-technology.com.
- ^ Eni, Blue Stream project Archived 2014-08-12 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "Eni and Gazprom sign the agreement for the South Stream Project". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2014-08-08.
- ^ "South Stream Gas Pipeline". gulfoilandgas.com.
- ^ "South Stream Pipeline Project, Europe". hydrocarbons-technology.com.
- ^ "Letter to Eni CEO" (PDF). Knight Vinke Asset Management. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 February 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2010.
- ^ "Eni achieves key production milestone in the Zubair field, in Iraq". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2014-03-28.
- ^ Gina Chon (4 November 2009). "Eni Signs Pact to Develop Iraq's Zubair Oil Field - WSJ". WSJ.
- ^ "Journal of Petroleum Technology - Company News". spe.org.
- ^ Eni in Mozambique Archived 2013-01-06 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ Mozambique: Galp Energia and Eni to drill offshore Mozambique in September
- ^ "Italian group ENI finds more natural gas in Mozambique". Macauhub English.
- ^ "ABO - About Oil - Our Publications". abo.net. Archived from the original on 2015-10-06.
- ^ "Explorer". aapg.org.
- ^ "Eni increases the Mamba South gas discovery in Mozambique by 50%". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-11.
- ^ "SubSeaIQ - Offshore Field Development Projects". subseaiq.com.
- ^ "Eni discovers gas at Mamba South offshore Mozambique". offshore-technology.com.
- ^ "Italy's ENI claims giant gas discovery in Mozambique". Modern Ghana.
- ^ "Eni: new giant gas discovery in the offshore Mozambique". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-21.
- ^ "Rovuma Basin promissing to ENI with Mozambique Mamba discoveries « 2B1stconsulting". 2b1stconsulting.com.
- ^ "NEWS". 1derrick.com.
- ^ Alan Petzet. "Eni adds Paleocene pay, 10+ tcf off Mozambique". ogj.com.
- ^ "Eni announces Mozambique gas discovery". bus-ex.com.
- ^ "Mozambique: Eni makes new natural gas discovery in the region". esteri.it.
- ^ "Eni: important new discovery in Mozambique". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2012-05-31.
- ^ ENI STRIKES ‘GIANT' NATURAL GAS FIELD AT CORAL PROSPECT Archived 2015-10-07 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ Super User. "Eni announces major new gas discovery offshore Mozambique". Oil Review Africa.
- ^ Zacks Investment Research (6 October 2015). "Eni Makes a Major Gas Discovery". Zacks Investment Research.
- ^ Eni finds oil and gas offshore DR Congo, Africa: Oil Review Africa, 2014
- ^ OGJ Editors (May 7, 2014). "Eni sheds eastern European refining assets". Oil and Gas Journal. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
A series of capacity reductions in its Italian refining business over the last 3 years contributed a 13% reduction in the company's global refining capacity in 2013, according to Eni.
- ^ "Italy's Eni acquires 40pc interest in Sasol's gas offshore permit". South Africa News.Net. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
- ^ Adams, Christopher (30 August 2015). "Eni discovers 'supergiant' gasfield near Egypt". Financial Times. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- ^ "A new era in fusion research at MIT". MIT News. Retrieved 2018-03-10.
- ^ a b "Exploration & Production". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2012-02-02.
- ^ Eni Makes Big Oil Find in Africa Amid New Sub-Saharan Success
- ^ "Eni Makes Significant Oil & Gas Discovery Offshore Congo". Offshore Energy Today.
- ^ "9Colonne - Eni: First important oil discovery in OTCP Block offshore Ghana". 9Colonne.
- ^ "Eni Discovers Significant Hydrocarbon Offshore Congo". usaoilandgasmonitor.com.
- ^ PennEnergy Editorial Staff. "Eni announces first production from Junin-5 oil field in Venezuela". pennenergy.com.
- ^ "Oil Production Kicks Off At Junin-5 In Venezuela". epmag.com.
- ^ "Eni awarded new exploration licenses in the Barents Sea". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-07-31.
- ^ Eni gets exploration licenses in Barents Sea, offshore Norway
- ^ "No Transcript Data". morningstar.com.
- ^ "Eni's CEO Hosts 2012-2015 Strategy Presentation Call (Transcript)". nasdaq.com.
- ^ Amarsys. "Kazakhstan: Eni sees Kashagan to produce 75,000 barrels a day in first month". energy-pedia.com.
- ^ Eni Releases 2013-2016 Strategic Plan Archived 2013-10-29 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ Iraq Archived 2013-08-26 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "- Eni: awarded East Sepinggan block in... - Europétrole". euro-petrole.com.
- ^ OGJ editors. "Eni sees 4%/year output rise through 2016". ogj.com.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2013-10-25.
- ^ "Eni Norge". eninorge.com.
- ^ "Oil and gas production". eni.com.
- ^ "Drilling". eni.com.
- ^ "Exploration and Development". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-06-10.
- ^ Annual report 2012 Archived 2015-10-06 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "Gas & Power". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30.
- ^ "Previous Year's Results". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-07-28.
- ^ "History and development of the Company". nyse.com.
- ^ "Sannazzaro Refinery - Hydrocarbons Technology". hydrocarbons-technology.com.
- ^ "Eni SpA (E) Company Profile - Reuters.com". reuters.com.
- ^ "Power Generation". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-31.
- ^ "Power". eni.com.
- ^ "Sales of natural gas". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-31.
- ^ "Eni". mercuriurval.com.
- ^ "Eni to Begin Trading Under Own Name in Belgium". naturalgaseurope.com.
- ^ "Eni Aims for 500,000 Customers in France Under Own Brand". naturalgaseurope.com.
- ^ "Eni Acquires Belgian Gas Company". LNG World News.
- ^ "Gas & Power". Eni. 2011-11-29. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
- ^ a b "Refining & Marketing". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2012-01-26.
- ^ The Italian Gas Market: Challenges and Opportunities
- ^ "Marketing of refined products". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-31.
- ^ "Eni will sell gas on the French retail market under its own brand". enerdata.net.
- ^ "Eni enters the retail natural gas market in France". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2012-11-06.
- ^ "Eni will operate on the Belgian retail market under its own brand". enerdata.net.
- ^ "Eni announces results for the third quarter and the nine months of 2012". akbizmag.com.
- ^ "Petrol World - Magazine" (PDF). petrolworld.com.
- ^ "Engineering & Construction". Eni. Archived from the original on 2012-06-26. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
- ^ "Eni and ZEiTECS Install Eni Congo's First Rigless Retrievable ESP System". BrightWire. Archived from the original on 2012-09-05.
- ^ "Eni Elektriciteit Aardgas Electricité Gaz Naturel". eni.be.
- ^ "Eni starts production at the Blane oil field offshore UK". Milan: Eni. 2007-09-12. Archived from the original on 2012-01-14. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
- ^ "ENI India to start drilling in Q2 of 2011". Kolkata: The Economic Times. 2010-10-26. Retrieved 2010-10-26.
- ^ The Putin and Pals Project Archived 2013-11-07 at the Wayback Machine.. Kommersant. Dec. 24, 2005
- ^ EU hits Italian energy group ENI with antitrust charges Archived 2009-04-26 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "Uganda names bribes-claim minister new PM". Reuters. 2011-05-24.
- ^ Bond Market Debut for New Eni CFO Mondazzi Archived 2013-01-19 at the Wayback Machine. CFO Insight Magazine, January 2013
- ^ "13 September 2012 - Eni confirmed in the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index". eni.com. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012.
- ^ Sustainability Index, Annual review 2012 Archived 2013-05-30 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ 4-traders (13 September 2012). "Eni SpA : Eni confirmed in Dow Jones Sustainability World Index". 4-traders.com.
- ^ "Eni confirmed in Dow Jones Sustainability World Index". This is Italy.
- ^ "17 September 2012 – Eni confirmed in the FTSE4Good Index". eni.com. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012.
- ^ Country classificationin FTSE Global benchmarks Archived February 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ 4-traders (17 October 2012). "Eni SpA : Eni confirmed in the FTSE4Good Index". 4-traders.com.
- ^ "12 September 2012 – Eni enters Cdp's Carbon Performance Leadership Index (CPLI)". eni.com. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013.
- ^ CDP climate performance scores Archived 2013-04-04 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "STOCK EXCHANGE: STANDARD ETHICS, ENI IS THE ONLY COMPANY IN THE FTSE MIB WITH A TRIPLE E". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-12-02.
- ^ "Climate Change". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2013-08-07.
- ^ Fact Book 2012 Archived 2014-08-17 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ Eni - Sustainability Indices Archived 2014-08-17 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "The sustainability in Eni". eni.com.
- ^ "Eni S.p.A. Annual Report 2013 - Welcome". eni.com.
- ^ "Business Model". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2014-08-16.
- ^ "Partnerships for Sustainable Energy". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2014-08-16.
- ^ "Eni for 2013". eni.com.
- ^ "Sustainable Development Solutions Network". unsdsn.org.
- ^ "Green Refinery Project". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2014-08-16.
- ^ "Matrìca: Porto Torres inaugurates new green chemistry complex". eni.com. Archived from the original on 2014-08-12.
- (in English) Marcello Boldrini, Mattei, Rome, Colombo, 1969
- (in Italian) Marcello Colitti, Energia e sviluppo in Italia, Bari, De Donato, 1979
- (in English) Paul H. Frankel, Oil and Power Policy, New York - Washington, Praeger, 1966
- (in English) Pier Paolo Pasolini, Petrolio, various
- (in Italian) Nico Perrone, Enrico Mattei, Bologna, Il mulino, 2001 ISBN 88-15-07913-0
||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eni.