If there are symptoms, people with empty sella syndrome can have headaches and vision loss. Additional symptoms would be associated with hypopituitarism.
Additional symptoms are as follows:
The normal mechanism of the pituitary gland sees that it controls the hormonal system, which therefore has an effect on growth, sexual development, and adrenocortical function. The gland is divided into anterior and posterior.
Its pathophysiology is such that individuals affected with the condition can have cerebrospinal fluid build-up, which in turn causes intracranial pressure leading to headaches for the individual.
There are two types of ESS: primary and secondary.
Primary ESS happens when a small anatomical defect above the pituitary gland increases pressure in the sella turcica and causes the gland to flatten out along the interior walls of the sella turcica cavity. Primary ESS is associated with obesity and increase in intracranial pressure in women.In most cases, especially in people with primary ESS, there are no symptoms and it does not affect life expectancy. Some researchers have estimated that less than 1% of affected people ever develop symptoms of the condition.
Secondary ESS is the result of the pituitary gland regressing within the cavity after an injury, surgery, or radiation therapy. Individuals with secondary ESS due to destruction of the pituitary gland have symptoms that reflect the loss of pituitary functions, such as intolerance to stress and infection.[medical citation needed]
In terms of management, unless the syndrome results in other medical problems, treatment for endocrine dysfunction associated with pituitary malfunction is symptomatic and thus supportive; however, surgery may be needed in some cases.