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Empress Zhang (Liu Shan's first wife)

Empress Zhang
Empress of Shu Han
Tenure223 – July or August 237
PredecessorEmpress Wu
SuccessorEmpress Zhang
DiedJuly or August 237[a]
Chengdu, Sichuan
SpouseLiu Shan
Posthumous name
Empress Jing'ai (敬哀皇后)
FatherZhang Fei
MotherLady Xiahou

Empress Zhang (died July or August 237),[a] personal name unknown, formally known as Empress Jing'ai (lit. "Respectful and Lamentable Empress"), was an empress of the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period. She was the eldest daughter of the Shu general Zhang Fei and his wife Lady Xiahou, who was a noble lady of the rival state Cao Wei as well as the niece of Wei's general Xiahou Yuan.[2] She married Liu Shan in 223 and became the crown princess of Shu. Later in the same year, after Liu Shan's father Liu Bei died, Liu Shan ascended the throne of Shu, and Zhang became the empress. She died in 237 and was buried in Nanling (南陵).[3]

As usual at the time, Empress Zhang was only married to Liu Shan for political reasons. Liu Shan's father, Liu Bei founded the Shu Han kingdom alongside his sworn brother, Zhang Fei. Shu's strategist, Zhuge Liang, recommended that the daughters of the Zhang family marry the sons of the Liu family to ensure the connection and political privileges between them.

See also


  1. ^ a b Liu Shan's biography in the Sanguozhi recorded that Empress Zhang died in the 6th month of the 15th year of the Jianxing era of Liu Shan's reign.[1] This month corresponds to 11 July to 8 August 237 in the Gregorian calendar.


  1. ^ ([建興]十五年夏六月,皇后張氏薨。) Sanguozhi vol. 33.
  2. ^ (初,建安五年,時霸從妹年十三四,在本郡,出行樵採,為張飛所得。飛知其良家女,遂以為妻,產息女,為劉禪皇后。) Weilue annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 9.
  3. ^ (後主敬哀皇后,車騎將軍張飛長女也。章武元年,納為太子妃。建興元年,立為皇后。十五年薨,葬南陵。) Sanguozhi vol. 34.
Chinese royalty
Preceded by
Empress Wu
Empress of Shu Han
Succeeded by
Empress Zhang (later)