|Emperor of Japan|
|Reign||September 11, 1308 – March 29, 1318|
|Born||August 14, 1297|
|Died||December 2, 1348(aged 51)|
Jirakūu-in no ue no Misasagi (Kyoto)
Emperor Hanazono (花園天皇 Hanazono-tennō) (August 14, 1297 – December 2, 1348) was the 95th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1308 through 1318.
He was the fourth son of the 92nd Emperor, Fushimi. He belonged to the Jimyōin-tō branch of the Imperial Family.
Consort: Ogimachi Michiko (正親町実子) later Senkomon’in（宣光門院, 1297-1360), Ogimachi Saneakira’s daughter
Consort: Ichijo-no-Tsubone (d.1325), Ogimachi Saneakira’s daughter
lady-in-waiting: Wamuro Yoriko (葉室頼子), Wamuro Yorito’s daughter
In these years, negotiations between the Bakufu and the two imperial lines resulted in an agreement to alternate the throne between the two lines every 10 years (the Bumpō Agreement). This agreement was not long-lasting. The negotiated provisions would soon broken by Hanazono's successor.
In 1318, he abdicated to his second cousin, the Daikakuji-tō Emperor Go-Daigo, who was Nijō's brother.
In 1335, he became a Buddhist monk of the Zen sect, and under his sponsorship, his palace became the temple of Myōshin-ji, now the largest network in Rinzai Buddhism. Many places and institutions in the area are named for him, including Hanazono University (the Rinzai university) and Hanazono Station.
He excelled at waka composition, and was an important member of the Kyōgoku School. He also left behind a diary, called Hanazono-in-Minki (Imperial Chronicles of the Flower Garden Temple or Hanazono-in) (花園院宸記). He was a very religious and literate person, never missing his prayers to the Amitabha Buddha.
Kugyō (公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. Even during those years in which the court's actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal, the hierarchic organization persisted.
In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Hanazono's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included:
| Emperor of Japan: