Addition of a complexant like crown ether or 2,2,2-cryptand to a solution of [Na(NH3)6]+e− affords [Na(crown ether)]+e− or [Na(2,2,2-crypt)]+e−. Evaporation of these solutions yields a blue-black paramagnetic salt with the formula [Na(2,2,2-crypt)]+e−.
Most solid electride salts decompose above 240 K, although [Ca24Al28O64]4+(e−)4 is stable at room temperature. In these salts, the electron is delocalized between the cations. Electrides are paramagnetic and Mott insulators. Properties of these salts have been analyzed.
Solutions of electride salts are powerful reducing agents, as demonstrated by their use in the Birch reduction. Evaporation of these blue solutions affords a mirror of Na. Such solutions slowly lose their colour as the electrons reduce ammonia:
Theoretical evidence supports electride behaviour in insulating high-pressure forms of potassium, sodium, and lithium. Here the isolated electron is stabilized by efficient packing, which reduces enthalpy under external pressure. The electride is identified by a maximum in the electron localization function, which distinguishes the electride from pressure-induced metallization. Electride phases are typically semiconducting or have very low conductivity, usually with a complex optical response. A sodium compound called disodium helide has been created under 113 gigapascals of pressure.
^Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN0-12-352651-5
^Buchammagari, H.; et al. (2007). "Room Temperature-Stable Electride as a Synthetic Organic Reagent: Application to Pinacol Coupling Reaction in Aqueous Media". Org. Lett. 9 (21): 4287–4289. doi:10.1021/ol701885p. PMID17854199.
^Wagner, M. J.; Huang, R. H.; Eglin, J. L.; Dye, J. L.
Nature, 1994,368, 726-729.