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politics and government of
|Political parties (former)|
Suffrage is universal and compulsory for every Egyptian citizen over 18. Failure to vote can result in fine or even imprisonment, but in practice a significant percentage of eligible voters do not vote. About 60 million voters are registered to vote out of a population of more than 85 million. Turnout in the 2011 parliamentary election was 54%.
The Kingdom of Egypt was granted nominal independence by the United Kingdom on 28 February 1922. Between the Declaration of 1922 and the Revolution of 1952, ten general elections were held (in 1924, 1925, 1926, 1929, 1931, 1936, 1938, 1942, 1945 and 1950). This era is generally known as Egypt's Liberal Experiment. Egypt has never recovered the level of political freedom it enjoyed during this period.
During the four elections held between 1924 and 1929, candidates from the Coptic Christian minority received 15 to 23 seats. Copts received four seats in 1931, six in 1938, 12 in 1945, and five in 1950. The opposition's share of seats also varied throughout this period. The opposition won 15.1% of the seats in the 1924 election, 18.9% in 1926, 6.9% in 1929, 18.1% in 1936, 12.1% in 1942, and 29.2% in the 1950 election, the last to be held prior to the 1952 Revolution which ended Egypt's multi-party system.
|Electoral year||Total seats in the
Chamber of Deputies
|Wafd Party||Big Landowners|
|Seats won||Percentage||Seats won||Percentage|
Under the Mubarak era, the Egyptian presidential election of 2005 was the first-ever multi-party, multi-candidate contested presidential election in Egypt's history, made under the 2005/2007 constitutional amendments to the 1971 Constitution of Egypt. Despite its significance, the election was marred by voter fraud, ballot stuffing, boycotts, intimidation, vote-buying, and protests by opposition groups, leading for a low-turnout of under 30%. Before the 2005 election, the President of Egypt was nominated by a two-thirds majority of the rubber-stamp People's Assembly and approved under a referendum process that resembles a show election in authoritarian countries.
|Candidates, Nominating parties||Votes||%|
|Hosni Mubarak, National Democratic Party (Al-Hizb Al-Watani Al-Dimuqrati)||6,316,714||88.6|
|Ayman Nour, Tomorrow Party (Hizb al-Ghad)||540,405||7.3|
|Numan Gomaa, New Wafd Party (Hizb al-Wafd al-Jadid)||201,891||2.8|
|Total (Turnout 22.9 %)||7,059,010|
Under the Mubarak era, The People's Assembly and Shura Council were elected under an electoral system of single member plurality. Along with the combination of voter fraud, ballot stuffing, intimidation, and lack of judicial and international supervision, this ensured the NDP a super-majority win of seats for both houses. The Muslim Brotherhood were not recognized as a political party by law, but its members were allowed to run as independents.
|Parties||Votes||%||2010 Seats||2005 Seats||Net Change||Seats |
|National Democratic Party (Al'Hizb Al Watani Al Democrati)||420||330||90||81.0%|
|New Wafd Party (Hizb al-Wafd-al-Jadid)||6||5||1||1.1%|
|Progressive National Unionist Party (Hizb al Tagammo' al Watani al Taqadommi al Wahdawi)||5||1||4||0.9%|
|Tomorrow Party (Hizb al-Ghad)||1||1||0||0.2%|
|Arab Democratic Nasserist Party or Nasserist Party||0||0||0||0.0%|
|Liberal Party (Hizb al-Ahrar)||0||0||0||0.0%|
|Social Justice Party (Hizb Al-'Adala al- Ijtima'iyya)||1||-||1||0.2%|
|Democratic Generation Party (Hizb El-Geel al-Democrati)||1||-||1||0.2%|
|Democratic Peace Party (Hizb El-Salaam al-Democrati)||1||-||1||0.2%|
|Independents (Muslim Brotherhood - al-ikhwān al-muslimūn)||1||88||−87||0.2%|
|Still in contest||4|
|Total (turnout %)||518|
|National Democratic Party (Al'Hizb Al Watani Al Democrati)||74||6||80|
|Progressive National Unionist Party (Hizb al Tagammo' al Watani al Taqadommi al Wahdwawi)||1||0||1|
|Tomorrow Party (Hizb al-Ghad)||1||0||1|
|Arab Democratic Nasserist Party or Nasserist Party||1||0||1|
|Democratic Generation Party (Hizb El-Geel al-Democrati)||1||0||1|
|Independents (Muslim Brotherhood - al-ikhwān al-muslimūn)||0||0||0|
|Party||Ideology||Votes||Vote %||FPTP Seats||List Seats||Total Seats||Appointed members|
|Free Egyptians Party||Liberalism, Secularism||57||8||65|
|Nation's Future Party||Populism||43||10||53|
|New Wafd Party||Egyptian nationalism, National Liberalism||27||8||36||1|
|Homeland Defenders Party||Populism||10||8||18|
|Republican People's Party||Liberalism, Populism||13||0||13|
|Conference Party||Big tent, Liberalism||8||4||12|
|Al-Nour Party||Islamism, Salafism||11||0||11|
|Conservative Party||Conservative Liberalism||1||5||6|
|Democratic Peace Party||Liberal Democracy, Civic Nationalism||5||0||5|
|Egyptian Social Democratic Party||Social Democracy, Social Liberalism||4||0||4|
|Egyptian National Movement Party||Secularism||4||0||4|
|Modern Egypt Party||4||0||4|
|Freedom Party||Big tent, Liberalism||3||0||3|
|Reform and Development Party||Liberalism||3||0||3|
|My Homeland Egypt Party||Populism||3||0||3|
|Revolutionary Guards Party||Nationalism, Liberalism||1||0||1|
|National Progressive Unionist Party||Left-wing Nationalism, Democratic Socialism||1||0||2||1|
|Free Egyptian Building Party||Islamism||1||0||1|
|Nasserist Party||Arab Nationalism, Arab Socialism||1||0||1|
|Total elected||elected MPs||0||100.00||0||0||0|
Egyptian presidential elections are held using a two-round system; the next election should be held in 2024.
The House of Representatives sits for a five-year term but can be dissolved earlier by the president. If the current parliament lasts the full term, the next elections will be held in 2020.
There had been ten general elections held from 1924 to 1952. These were the elections of 1924, 1925, 1926, 1929, 1931, 1936, 1938, 1942, 1945 and 1950.
There have been 13 referendums in Egypt, the first one being held on 23 June 1956 when voters were asked to approve or disapprove of Nasser and the constitution.[dead link]
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