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El Cimarrón (The Runaway Slave) is a composition by the German composer Hans Werner Henze, written when the composer lived in Cuba in 1969–1970. It is subtitled Biographie des geflohenen Sklaven Esteban Montejo (Biography of the runaway slave Esteban Montejo), and the libretto by Hans Magnus Enzensberger is based on the oral autobiography related in 1963 to Miguel Barnet by Montejo, who was also a veteran of the Cuban War of Independence (1895–98). See also: Cimarron (people).
Henze described the score as a "recital for four musicians". They consist of a baritone who portrays El Cimarrón himself, a guitarist, a flautist and a percussionist, although all four musicians play percussion instruments during the work. The flautist also plays the Japanese ryūteki and the Italian scacciapensieri (Jew's harp), as well as the four conventional orchestral flutes.
The work received its premiere at the 1970 Berlin Festival, with William Pearson as El Cimarrón, and the soloists Karlheinz Zöller (flute), Leo Brouwer (guitar) and Stomu Yamash'ta (percussion) under the direction of the composer. The UK premiere was in June 1970 at the Aldeburgh Festival with the same forces.
The Australian premiere was at the Adelaide Festival on 14 March 1976, directed by the composer, with Lyndon Terracini as El Cimarrón, Geoffrey Collins (flute), Roger Glanville-Hicks (guitar), and Colin Piper (percussion).
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