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Egra I

Egra I
Community development block
Egra I is located in West Bengal
Egra I
Egra I
Location in West Bengal, India
Coordinates: 21°54′N 87°32′E / 21.90°N 87.53°E / 21.90; 87.53
Country India
StateWest Bengal
DistrictPurba Medinipur
Government
 • TypeCommunity development block
Area
 • Total197.10 km2 (76.10 sq mi)
Elevation
19 m (62 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total167,163
 • Density850/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialBengali, English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
721429 (Egra)
721447 (Panchrol)
Area code(s)03229
ISO 3166 codeIN-WB
Vehicle registrationWB-29, WB-30, WB-31, WB-32, WB-33
Literacy82.83%
Lok Sabha constituencyMidnapore
Vidhan Sabha constituencyEgra
Websitepurbamedinipur.gov.in

Egra I is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Egra subdivision of Purba Medinipur district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

Geography

Purba Medinipur district is part of the lower Indo-Gangetic Plain and Eastern coastal plains. Topographically, the district can be divided into two parts – (a) almost entirely flat plains on the west, east and north, (b) the coastal plains on the south. The vast expanse of land is formed of alluvium and is composed of younger and coastal alluvial. The elevation of the district is within 10 metres above mean sea level. The district has a long coastline of 65.5 km along its southern and south eastern boundary. Five coastal CD Blocks, namely, Khejuri II, Contai II (Deshapran), Contai I, Ramnagar I and II, are occasionally affected by cyclones and tornadoes. Tidal floods are quite regular in these five CD Blocks. Normally floods occur in 21 of the 25 CD Blocks in the district. The major rivers are Haldi, Rupnarayan, Rasulpur, Bagui and Keleghai, flowing in north to south or south-east direction. River water is an important source of irrigation. The district has a low 899 hectare forest cover, which is 0.02% of its geographical area.[1][2][3]

Egra is located at 21°54′N 87°32′E / 21.90°N 87.53°E / 21.90; 87.53.

Egra I CD Block is bounded by Patashpur II CD Block in the north, Egra II CD Block in the east, Ramnagar I CD Block in the south and Dantan II and Mohanpur CD Blocks, in Paschim Medinipur district, and Bhograi Block/Tehsil in Balasore district of Odisha, in the west.

It is located 68 km from Tamluk, the district headquarters.

Egra I CD Block has an area of 197.10 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 8 gram panchayats, 122 gram sansads (village councils), 133 mouzas and 123 inhabited villages. Egra police station serves this block.[4] Headquarters of this CD Block is at Egra.[5]

Gram panchayats of Egra I block/ panchayat samiti are: Barida, Chhatri, Jerthan, Jumki, Kasba Egra, Panchrol, Rishi Bankimchandra and Sahara.[6]

Demographics

Population

As per 2011 Census of India Egra I CD Block had a total population of 167,163, all of which were rural. There were 86,458 (52%) males and 80,705 (48%) females. Population below 6 years was 18,870. Scheduled Castes numbered 15,461 (9.25%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 2,617 (1.57%).[7]

As per 2001 census, Egra I block had a total population of 145,038, out of which 74,021 were males and 71,017 were females. Egra I block registered a population growth of -2.60 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for the combined Midnapore district was 14.87 per cent.[8]Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent.[9]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Egra I CD Block (2011 census figures in brackets): Barida (4,630), Jerthan (6,568), Alangiri (6,099), Panchrol (5,615), Chatla (5,443), Nagua (4,396), Rasan (4,114) and Chhatri (7,186).[7]

Other villages in Egra I CD Block (2011 census figures in brackets): Sahara (2,378).[7]

Literacy

As per the 2011 census the total number of literates in Egra I CD Block was 122,834 (82.83% of the population over 6 years) out of which 68,827 (56%) were males and 54,007 (44%) were females.[7]

As per the 2011 census, literacy in Purba Medinipur district was 87.02%.[10] Purba Medinipur had the highest literacy amongst all the districts of West Bengal in 2011.[11]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Language and religion

As per the 2001 census, Bengali was the mother-tongue of 90.5%of the population of Purba Medinipur district, followed by Santali (4.6%), Hindi (1.4%), Kurmali Thar (0.7%), Urdu (0.6%), Telugu (0.6%), Odiya (0.4%), Mundari (0.2%), Koda/ Kora (0.1%), Munda (0.1%), Nepali (0.1%) and others (0.3%). Census information about language is available at the district level or above only.[12]

The West Bengal Official Language (Second Amendment) Bill, 2012, included Hindi, Santhali, Odiya and Punjabi as official languages if it is spoken by a population exceeding 10 per cent of the whole in a particular block or sub-division or a district. Subsequently, Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi and Kurmali were also included in the list of minority languages by the West Bengal Official Language (Second Amendment) Bill, 2018.[13][14]However, as of 2019, there is no official / other reliable information about the areas covered.

Religion in Egra I CD Block
Hindu
85.22%
Muslim
14.68%
Others
0.10%

In the 2011 census Hindus numbered 142,451 and formed 85.22% of the population in Egra I CD Block. Muslims numbered 24,539 and formed 14.68% of the population. Others numbered 173 and formed 0.10% of the population.[15]

Rural poverty

The District Human Development Report for Purba Medinipur has provided a CD Block-wise data table for Modified Human Poverty Index of the district. Egra I CD Block registered 21.31 on the MHPI scale. The CD Block-wise mean MHPI was estimated at 24.78. Eleven out of twentyfive CD Blocks were found to be severely deprived in respect of grand CD Block average value of MHPI (CD Blocks with lower amount of poverty are better): All the CD Blocks of Haldia and Contai subdivisions appeared backward, except Ramnagar I & II, of all the blocks of Egra subdivision only Bhagabanpur I appeared backward and in Tamluk subdivision none appeared backward.[16]

Economy

Livelihood

In Egra I CD Block in 2011, total workers formed 43.66% of the total population and amongst the class of total workers, cultivators formed 38.79%, agricultural labourers 43.28%, household industry workers 2.45% and other workers 15.48%.[17]

Infrastructure

There are 123 inhabited villages in Egra I CD block. All 123 villages (100%) have power supply. 122 villages (99.19%) have drinking water supply. 18 villages (14.63%) have post offices. 117 villages (95.12%) have telephones (including landlines, public call offices and mobile phones). 20 villages (16.26%) have a pucca (paved) approach road and 30 villages (24.39%) have transport communication (includes bus service, rail facility and navigable waterways). 19 villages (15.45%) have agricultural credit societies. 6 villages (4.88%) have banks.[18]

In 2007-08, around 40% of rural households in the district had electricity.[19]

In 2013-14, there were 111 fertiliser depots, 16 seed stores and 29 fair price shops in the CD Block.[17]

Agriculture

Persons engaged in agriculture
in Egra I CD Block

  Bargadars (5.72%)
  Patta holders (14.83%)
  Small farmers (2.59%)
  Marginal farmers (35.86%)
  Agricultural labourers (41.00%)

According to the District Human Development Report of Purba Medinipur: The agricultural sector is the lifeline of a predominantly rural economy. It is largely dependent on the Low Capacity Deep Tubewells (around 50%) or High Capacity Deep Tubewells (around 27%) for irrigation, as the district does not have a good network of canals, compared to some of the neighbouring districts. In many cases the canals are drainage canals which get the backflow of river water at times of high tide or the rainy season. The average size of land holding in Purba Medinipur, in 2005-06, was 0.73 hectares against 1.01 hectares in West Bengal.[19]

In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in Egra I CD Block was 13,310 hectares, out of which 55 hectares were irrigated by canal water, 140 hectares by tank water, 12,115 hectares by deep tube well and 1,000 hectares by shallow tube well.[17]

Although the Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented fully. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants.[20]Following land reforms land ownership pattern has undergone transformation. In 2013-14, persons engaged in agriculture in Egra I CD Block could be classified as follows: bargadars 5.72%, patta (document) holders 14.83%, small farmers (possessing land between 1 and 2 hectares) 2.59%, marginal farmers (possessing land up to 1 hectare) 35.86% and agricultural labourers 41.00%.[17]


In 2013-14, Egra I CD Block produced 22,289 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop, from 16,715 hectares and 33,623 tonnes of Boro paddy, the spring crop, from 10,480 hectares. It also produced pulses and oilseeds.[17]

Betelvine is a major source of livelihood in Purba Medinipur district, particularly in Tamluk and Contai subdivisions. Betelvine production in 2008-09 was the highest amongst all the districts and was around a third of the total state production. In 2008-09, Purba Mednipur produced 2,789 tonnes of cashew nuts from 3,340 hectares of land.[19]

Concentration of Handicraft Activities in CD Blocks
  • Horn Craft - Kolaghat
  • Pata Chitra - Chandipur, Nandakumar
  • Sea Shell – Ramnagar I & II
  • Mat & Mat Diversified Products – Ramnagar I, Egra I & II, Patashpur I
  • Brass & Bell Metal – Ramnagar I, Mahisadal, Patashpur II, Egra I
  • Diversified Jute Products – Ramnagar II, Nandakumar, Kolaghat, Shahid Matangini
  • Cane & Bamboo Products - Chandipur, Nandakumar, Kolaghat, Shahid Matangini
  • Sola Craft - Tamluk, Kolaghat
  • Pottery/Terracotta - Panskura, Tamluk, Sahid Matangini, Nandakumar
  • Wood Craft - Tamluk
  • Zari work- Sutahta, Mahisadal, Haldia, Nandakumar

Source: District Human Development Report, Purba Medinipur, Page 97

Pisciculture

Purba Medinipur’s net district domestic product derives one fifth of its earnings from fisheries, the highest amongst all the districts of West Bengal.[19]The nett area available for effective pisciculture in Egra I CD Block in 2013-14 was 735.15 hectares. 1,990 persons were engaged in the profession and approximate annual production was 28,009 quintals.[17]

Banking

In 2013-14, Egra I CD Block had offices of 6 commercial banks and 1 gramin bank.[17]

Backward Regions Grant Fund

Medinipur East district is listed as a backward region and receives financial support from the Backward Regions Grant Fund. The fund, created by the Government of India, is designed to redress regional imbalances in development. As of 2012, 272 districts across the country were listed under this scheme. The list includes 11 districts of West Bengal.[21][22]

Transport

Egra I CD Block has 13 originating/ terminating bus routes. The nearest railway station is 23 km from the CD Block headquarters.[17]

SH 5 connecting Rupnarayanpur (in Bardhaman district) and Junput (in Purba Medinipur district) passes through Egra.[23]

Education

In 2013-14, Egra I CD Block had 105 primary schools with 6,951 students, 25 middle schools with 2,704 students, 10 high schools with 7,620 students and 11 higher secondary schools with 15,037 students. Egra I CD Block had 310 institutions for special and non-formal education with 11,801 students.[17]

As per the 2011 census, in Egra I CD block, amongst the 123 inhabited villages, 12 villages did not have a school, 38 villages had two or more primary schools, 38 villages had at least 1 primary and 1 middle school and 21 villages had at least 1 middle and 1 secondary school.[24]

Egra Sarada Shashi Bhusan College was established at Egra (a municipal city outside this CD block) in 1968.[25]

Healthcare

In 2014, Egra I CD Block had 1 block primary health centre, 2 primary health centres and 1 nursing home with total 20 beds and 6 doctors (excluding private bodies). It had 25 family welfare sub centres. 439 patients were treated indoor and 45,786 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[17]

Ramchandrapur Block Primary Health Centre at Ramchandrapur, PO Kharbandhi (with 10 beds) is the main medical facility in Egra I CD block. There are primary health centres at Chatla (with 2 beds) and Kasabagola, PO Panchrol (with 2 beds).[26]

References

  1. ^ "Brief Industrial Profile of Purba Midnapur District" (PDF). Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Industries, Government of India. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  2. ^ "Mapping Dynamics of land utilization and its changing Patterns of Purba Medinipure District - W.B". researchgate.net. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  3. ^ "District Human Development Report: Purba Medinipur" (PDF). Chapter I Introduction. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  4. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Purba Medinipur". Tables 2.1, 2.2. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  5. ^ "District Census Handbook: Purba Medinipur" (PDF). Map of Purba Medinipur with CD Block HQs and Police Stations. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  6. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Purba Medinipur - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 22 June 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  8. ^ "Provisional population totals, West Bengal, Table 4, (erstwhile) Medinipur District". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  9. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  10. ^ "Purba Medinipur (East Midnapore) District: Census 2011 data". 2016 Digital Trends. Census Population 2015 Data. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  11. ^ "Districts of West Bengal". High Literacy. Census Population 2015 Data. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  12. ^ "District Census Handbook: Purba Medinipur , Series 20, Part XIIA" (PDF). Pages 54-55, Table XI: Population by mother-tongue in Purba Medinipur district, 1961-2001. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  13. ^ "Multilingual Bengal". The Telegraph, 11 December 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  14. ^ "Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi make it to the list of official languages in Bengal". Outlook, 28 February 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  15. ^ "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  16. ^ "District Human Development Report: Purba Medinipur" (PDF). May 2011. Pages: 2214-215. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Purba Medinipur". Tables 2.7, 2.1, 8.2, 16.1, 17.2, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  18. ^ "District Census Handbook Purba Medinipur, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 93 Table 36: Distribution of villages according to availability of different amenities, 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  19. ^ a b c d "District Human Development Report: Purba Medinipur" (PDF). May 2011. Pages: 26, 30-33, 37, 61-63, 89-94. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  20. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  21. ^ "Backward Regions Grant Funds: Programme Guidelines" (PDF). Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  22. ^ "Backward Regions Grant Fund". Press Release, 14 June 2012. Press Information Bureau, Government of India. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  23. ^ "List of State Highways in West Bengal". West Bengal Traffic Police. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  24. ^ "District Census Handbook, Purba Mednipur, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 1091-92, Appendix I A: Villages by number of Primary Schools and Appendix I B: Villages by Primary, Middle and Secondary Schools. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  25. ^ "Egra Sarada Sashi Bhusan College". ICBSE. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  26. ^ "Health & Family Welfare Department". Health Statistics. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 27 March 2019.