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Duke of Clarence

Dukedom of Clarence
(Extinct)
Coronet of a Child of the Sovereign.svg
Arms of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence.svg
Arms of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence (third creation): Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France modern, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with a canton Gules
Creation date 1362 (first creation)
1412 (second creation)
1461 (third creation)
Monarch Edward III (first creation)
Henry IV (second creation)
Edward IV (third creation)
Peerage Peerage of England
First holder Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence
Last holder Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale
Subsidiary titles First creation:
Earl of Ulster
Second creation:
Earl of Aumale
Third creation:
Earl of Warwick
Earl of Salisbury
Extinction date

1368 (first creation)
1421 (second creation)
1892

(third creation)

Duke of Clarence is a substantive title which has been traditionally awarded to junior members of the British royal family. All three creations were in the Peerage of England.

The title was first granted to Lionel of Antwerp, the second son of King Edward III, in 1362. Since he died without sons, the title became extinct. The title was again created in favour of Thomas of Lancaster, the second son of King Henry IV, in 1412. Upon his death, too, the title became extinct. The last creation in the Peerage of England was for George Plantagenet, brother of King Edward IV, in 1461. The Duke forfeited his title in 1478, after he had been convicted of treason against his brother. He allegedly met his end (according to William Shakespeare) by being drowned in a butt of Malmsey.

A fourth creation in England was suggested and planned to take effect; the title of Duke of Clarence was going to be given to Lord Guilford Dudley, husband of Lady Jane Grey, upon her coronation, as she declined to make her husband king consort. However, she was deposed before this could take effect.

Two double dukedoms, of Clarence and St Andrews and of Clarence and Avondale, were later created for British royal princes. The title also took the form of an earldom for Queen Victoria's son Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, and his son Prince Charles Edward, the Clarence earldom being a subsidiary title.

The title is said to originate[1] from the town of Clare, Suffolk, which was owned by the first Duke of Clarence, Lionel of Antwerp. His wife, Elizabeth, 4th Countess of Ulster, was a direct descendant of the previous owners, the de Clares, and the Manor of Clare was among the lands which she brought to her husband.[2] After the Union of the Crowns in 1603, the holders of the title were also given titles including Scottish place names: St Andrews and Avondale.

Dukes of Clarence, first Creation (1362)

The title was first created for Lionel, a younger son of Edward III who in 1352 had married Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster, the sole heiress in a female line of Gilbert de Clare, 8th Earl of Gloucester. The Clarence was the Clare estates, and as owner of them by right of his wife Lionel was given that title.

also Earl of Ulster (1264) jure uxoris

Dukes of Clarence, second Creation (1412)

also Earl of Aumale (1412)

Dukes of Clarence, third Creation (1461)

also Earl of Warwick and Earl of Salisbury (1472)

Related Titles

William IV was styled "HRH The Duke of Clarence" between his creation in 1789 and his accession in 1830

Duke of Clarence and St Andrews (1789)

  • William IV (1765–1837), who became king in 1830, at which point the title merged with the Crown.

Earls of Clarence (1881)

Duke of Clarence and Avondale (1890)

Family Tree

Family Tree: Dukes of Clarence


 
 
 
 
 
King Edward III
(1312–r.1327–1377)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF CLARENCE, 1362
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lionel of Antwerp,
Duke of Clarence

(1338–1368)
 
 
John of Gaunt,
1st Duke of Lancaster

(1340–1399)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Philippa, 5th Countess of Ulster
(1355–1382)
m. 3rd Earl of March
 
 
King Henry IV
(1367–r.1399–1413)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF CLARENCE, 1412
 
 
Roger Mortimer,
4th Earl of March

(1374–1398)
 
King Henry V
(1386–r.1413–1422)
 
Thomas of Lancaster,
Duke of Clarence

(1388–1421)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anne de Mortimer
(1390–1411)
m. 3rd Earl of Cambridge
 
King Henry VI
(1421–1471,
r.1422–61, 1470–71)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Richard of York,
3rd Duke of York

(1411–1460)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF CLARENCE, 1461
 
 
 
 
 
 
King Edward IV
(1442–1483,
r.1461–70, 1471–83)
 
George,
Duke of Clarence

(1449–1478)
 
King Richard III
(1452–r.1483–1485)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Elizabeth of York
(1466–1503)
m. King Henry VII
(1457–r.1485–1509)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
King Henry VIII
(1491–r.1509–1547)
 
 
 
Princess Margaret Tudor
(1489–1541)
m. James IV of Scotland
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Edward VI (1537–r.1547–1553)
Mary I (1516–r.1553–1558)
Elizabeth I (1533–r.1558–1603)
 
 
 
James V of Scotland
(1512–1542)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mary, Queen of Scots
(1542–1587)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
King James VI & I
(1566–r.1603–1625)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Princess Elizabeth Stuart
(1596–1662)
m. Frederick V of the Palatinate
 
 
 
 
 
King Charles I
(1600–r.1625–1649)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sophia of Hanover
(1630–1714)
m. Ernest Augustus of Brunswick
 
King Charles II
(1630–r.1660–1685)
 
King James II
(1633–1701, r.1685–1688)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
King George I
(1660–r.1714–1727)
 
 
Queen Mary II
(1662–r.1689–1694)
 
Queen Anne
(1665–r.1702–1714)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
King George II
(1683–r.1727–1760)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Prince Frederick Louis,
Prince of Wales

(1707–1751)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
King George III
(1738–r.1760–1820)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF CLARENCE
& ST ANDREWS
, 1789
 
 
 
 
King George IV
(1762–r.1820–1830)
 
Prince William Henry,
Duke of Clarence and St Andrews

King William IV
(1765–r.1830–1837)
 
Prince Edward,
Duke of Kent

(1767–1820)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Queen Victoria
(1819–r.1837–1901)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EARL OF CLARENCE, 1881
 
 
King Edward VII
(1841–r.1901–1910)
 
 
 
 
 
Prince Leopold, 1st Duke of Albany,
1st Earl of Clarence

(1853–1884)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF CLARENCE
& AVONDALE
, 1890
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Prince Albert Victor,
Duke of Clarence and Avondale

(1864–1892)
 
King George V
(1865–r.1910–1936)
 
 
 
Charles Edward, 2nd Duke of Albany,
2nd Earl of Clarence

(1884–1954)
Honours forfeit, 1919
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
King Edward VIII
(1894–1972, r.1936)
 
King George VI
(1895–r.1936–1952)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Queen Elizabeth II
(1926–r.1952–)

Possible future creations

The Dukedom is currently vacant. While there were some speculations that it is one of the options available for Prince Harry upon his wedding with Meghan Markle, press reports have also noted the Dukedom's checkered past, including scandals and unfounded rumors of criminality related to Prince Albert Victor.[3][4] Prince Harry was ultimately awarded the Dukedom of Sussex.

References

  1. ^ Polydore Vergil, in his Anglica Historia of 1534 (Book XIX.36) dates the Dukedom to 1361 and claims to have rediscovered the lost origins of the name. See also David Hatton, Clare, Suffolk, an account of historical features of the town, its Priory and its Parish Church, 2006, Book 1, p21 ISBN 0-9524242-3-1 It is also available online on the Clare website. See also the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography s.v. 'Lionel [Lionel of Antwerp], duke of Clarence': "Lionel's elevation to the title of duke of Clarence (meaning the town, castle, and honour of Clare)".
  2. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Clarence, Dukes of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 427–428. 
  3. ^ Scotti, Monique (19 May 2018). "A look at Harry and Meghan's new titles: Duke and Duchess of Sussex". Global News. Retrieved 19 May 2018. Clarence is tainted by more than a bit of bad luck, for instance, with one Duke of Clarence executed by his brother as a traitor (Shakespeare even wrote about that particular incident). Another Duke of Clarence, the grandson of Queen Victoria, got himself mixed up in a scandal involving a gay-prostitution ring. He later died of influenza at just 28. 
  4. ^ Davies, Caroline (19 May 2018). "Harry and Meghan to be Duke and Duchess of Sussex". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 May 2018. Clarence has had a chequered history as previous holders have died young, been drowned in a barrel of Malmsey wine or erroneously rumoured to be Jack the Ripper.